1.1 Backgroundof the Study One of the most commonly used languages inthe world is English language, most of the people around the seven continentsare speaking or dealing with English language, officially, or as nativelanguage, and some other countries who do not use it at all, but if they do notspeak it fluently they are -at least- familiar with the language. The Englishlanguage is having nowadays a huge demand for so many professions, studies orany other international activities. To be in touch with the outer world we haveto learn English, and it depends on the need of a learner or student for theirneed of learning English, it might be for an academic purpose, travelingpurpose, business purpose, or maybe as a love for exploring more about alanguage.
The need of English is increasing day by day for different uses inlife for many fields as in business, traveling, education, media, and sports,the need of English made them easier for the world to understand and reach toevery house’s doorstep. English has affected the other languages, theusers of English they do increase for the sake of perfect communication betweentwo different parts of the world, in order to avoid miscommunication, and somepeople do have to hire a particular translator for better connection, Thisprocess mostly happens in countries that do not use English as their nativelanguage. English has travel to be used in all over theworld, now it’s been as a common language for many different countries,according to Kachru (1985), in his partition of world English (Global English),English has three different concentric circles: Inner circle which includes thecountries who use English as native language as in (USA, UK), Outer circlewhich includes the countries who use English in formal systems as in (Pakistan,Singapore), and Expanding circle which includes the countries which use Englishas a Second Language as in (Arab Countries “Palestine”, Turkey), the differenceis that at the Expanding circle the countries do not use English as a formallanguage, they do teach English at their institutes (schools and universities). For the countries which use English as asecond language they do face some difficulties in their speaking production, inpronunciation and their spelling, particularly for Arab countries, in Arabiclanguage there are many sounds of alphabets which require more stress on thesound in order to pronounce it clearly, the countries which do use Arabiclanguage as their mother tongue, they do face difficulties in speaking Englishlanguage, because of some missing sounds of English language from Arabiclanguage and vice versa, for example; the sounds /p/, /g/, and /?/ in English language, do notexist in Arabic language, and the sounds /?/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /?/, and /?/ inArabic language, do not exist in English language. The pronunciations of non-commonsounds between the two languages make the difficulties of speaking English,there are other factors that face the students while producing a speech, willbe discussed later in this study (J. E. Flege, R.
Port, 1981).1.2 ResearchQuestions RQ1 – What are the EnglishSpeaking difficulties that the Palestinian Students in the Universities ofLahore face? RQ2 – How can these EnglishSpeaking difficulties faced by the Palestinian Students in the Universities ofLahore be removed? RQ3 – How can the changein curriculum impact these English Speaking difficulties?1.3 Objectiveof The Study The present study hasthe following objectives:· To find thedifficulties of speaking English among the Palestinian students.· To check theabilities of Palestinian students in speaking English at the university level.· To help thestudents improve their English speaking skill.· To suggestrecommendations in the light of finding.· To review theexisting relevant literature .
1.4 Significanceof the Study The significance of the study is that it would highlight major factorsand give in detail information with reference to particular area of the investigation.It would be helpful to the researchers to explore the remedial measure forthese particular difficulties. The study would be a guideline for thePalestinian students who are out of their country.
1.5 ProposedMethodologyThe study PopulationThe populations of the study arePalestinian students in the universities of Lahore in Pakistan.Sample The target of the researchis 50 students from three different universities in Lahore city.Tools The tools are: 1- questionnaire is given to the students to fill it withdifferent question and answers, 2- interview is held with the student by theresearcher to let them answer certain questions and talk about any randomtopic, the aim of the researcher is to test their 1) grammatical use 2)pronunciation of words 3) ability of speaking without hesitation, to point outtheir speaking difficulties.Method Observation/ field notesApproach Quantitative + QualitativeQuantitative test applyQualitative 1.6 Delimitationof study The study is considered about the Palestinian students in Lahore, thatit might help the students focus more often on their abilities to use theEnglish language, more commonly speaking skill.
1.7 Organizationof the ThesisChapter 1presents the Introduction to the Study, and the materials that are used in theStudy, Chapter 2 presents the Review of Literature related to Study, Chapter 3shows the methods that are used to collect information’s that are related toresearch questions, Chapter 4 presents the Data Analysis of the Study, Chapter5 presents the Discussion of the Study, Chapter 6 includes Summary, Conclusionand Recommendation, and Chapter 6 presents the References of the Study. CHAPTER2LITERATUREREVIEW2.
1 Speaking Skill Speaking is an act of producing a vocal sound,which means to converse and express someone thoughts and feelings in aparticular spoken language. It does exist to convey the information’s betweentwo different persons, and speaking is the door where someone can pass throughto communicate with other people. Speaking is the productive skill in oralcommunication, and it has three different situations, where do the speakersfind themselves in Interactive,partially interactive, and non-interactive situations (M. Bashir, M. Azeem, A.
H. Dogar, 2011).2.1.1 Interactive Situations Includes face-to-face conversationsand mobile calls, in which we use listening and speaking alternately, where thelistener can ask for clarification, repetition, and slower speech from theother partner of a communication (N.K. Baym,2004).
2.1.2 PartiallyInteractive Situations Where the speaker isgiving a speech to a live audience and the convention is that the audience doesnot interrupt the speech.
2.1.3 NonInteractive Situations Where thelistener cannot see the speaker and interact with the speech as in songs andradio broadcast.2.2 FactorsAffect Speaking English Language Speaking English is the most difficult task for English languagelearners, and it will remain the most difficult skill for the majority oflearners, and they are still unable to communicate with others orally (Zhang,2009). There are many factor which cause difficulties, and those factors are,(Ur, 1996):2.2.
1 Inhabitation: learners are worried about making mistakes whilespeaking in a foreign language, and they are afraid of being criticized byothers to them, or they are shy of getting others attraction by their speech.2.2.2 Nothingto say: the learners may nothave the motivation to express their feelings or thoughts; they keep silenceand do not think in the target language.2.
2.3 Lowor uneven participation: only oneparticipant can talk at a time because of large classes and tendency of somelearners to dominate, while others speak very little or not at all.2.2.4 Mother-tongueuse: learners who do share the same mother-tongue tendto use it because it’s easier and the learners will feel less stress if theyspeak in their mother-tongue, in the classroom or in other activities outof the classroom.
2.3 EnglishLanguage Speaking Purposes Torky S. A. E. (2006) the purposeof speaking any language as a second language can be either transactional orinteractional. For speaking English as a second language (ESL) there are somedifferences between both transactional and interactional discourse.
In transactional discourse, language isprimarily used for communicating information. In interactional discourse, language is usedfor establishing or maintaining a relationship. According to the study of (ESP) English for specificpurpose, which addresses the communicative needs and practices of a particulargroup, the learners learn a language for a specific need or purposes, thesepurposes might be as according to Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987): (EAP)English for academic purpose, (EOP)English for occupational purpose, or (EST) science and technology.
Kingen (2000) according to his analysis ofspeaking purposes, combines the purposes of speaking, transactional andinteractional, into twelve categories:2.3.1 Personal:to express personal feelings and thoughts.2.3.2 Descriptive:to describe someone or something, reality orimagination.2.3.
3 Narrative:to create a speech or to make a story with events.2.3.4 Instructive: to give any instruction or to provide any directionmade to create outcomes.2.3.5 Questioning:seeking for information by asking questions.2.
3.6 Comparative: comparing between two or more objects, people,ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.2.3.7 Imaginative:expressing mental images of people, place, events,and objects.
2.3.8 Predictive: predicting possible future events.2.3.
9 Interpretative:exploring meanings, creating hypotheticaldeductions, and considering inferences.2.3.10 Persuasive: changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points ofview, or influencing the behavior of others in some way.
2.3.11 Explanatory: explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas andopinions.2.
3.12 Informative: sharing information with others. 2.
4 SpeakingEnglish For Arabs Arab learners of English language run across problems in speaking Englishlanguage. Learners of English language, for example, in Syria the students dolearn English in their native language (Arabic), they do learn English only byprivate tuitions for English language, in their classrooms where the teachersuse their native language (Arabic) to teach the students at schools or anyother institutions, there is a little use of English language by teachers inorder to deliver a lecture for their students, and to learn English language bythis way there will be a little possibility to acquire English as second orforeign language. This way is only used if the learner is about to leave thecountry and use English language for particular time at a particular place(Rababah, G. 2002). The use of English language in Arab countriesis not compulsory at any proficiency or occupation, Arabic language is the onewhich is used most of the time, the people do prefer to communicate in theirown native language for better understanding and sharing of thoughts.
Arabs do encounter sharp lexical problemswhile involving in any English communication event or situation (Zughoul,1984). In most of Arab countries, there areparticular aims of learning English as a foreign language, for example, inJordan students are supposed to be able to communicate by different linguisticfunctions made for specific everyday events. In Sudan, as Kambal (1980) did characterizethe errors in the verb phrase: verb formation, tense, and subject-verbagreement. And he argued about errors in: tense sequence, tense substitution,tense marker, deletion, and confusion of perfect tenses. In Egypt, the learnerthey do face difficulty of conveying any message, their mother tongue accent isa little different from the basic Arabic one, for their pronunciation of soundswhich make these differences, for example, the sentence ( this is an apple)they pronounce it as (thisi isi an apple), another example, (whatever) theypronounce it as (what-efear), that which made this difficulty for the Egyptianlearners to acquire English language, or in particular to deliver any messageto someone about something.
According to Wahba (1998) “the Egyptian studentsface certain problems related to pronunciation. Some of these problems arerelated to stress, others are related to intonation. However, most of theseproblems can be attributed to the differences in pronunciation between Englishand Arabic”. In Yemen and Saudi Arabia, the case isdifferent for the students start to have English classes and courses at schoolsafter their 7th grade (first preparatory class), within the lowpractice of English language for the learners, still they are accepted at anyuniversity of the Arabic world, that what makes the issue increasing by thepassage of the time (abbad, A. T., 1998).
Arabs do find it difficult to communicate intheir target language, most often, the method of teaching is the matter ofcreating these issues for the learners, because in Arab countries they do usethe GTM (grammar translation method) in teaching their students, the studentsare not trained well for the use of language in communication purpose.2.5 SpeakingEnglish For Palestinian Speaking English in Palestine has the same issues ofother Arab countries, where teachers do not focus on developing listening andspeaking skills. For the Palestinian students, English language is not used atall, perhaps some privet institutes where English is used to teach any Englishcourse, but the lecture will be delivered to students, but teachers, sometimes,tend to explain things in native language for the students.
And for thegovernment institutes the case is totally different, where the lectures aredelivered in Arabic only. The main aim of teaching English for Palestinianstudents is to make them able to communicate with other English speakers byusing productive skills (speaking and writing). For these students, they willnot be aware of their errors while communicating and in case, the students areaware of these errors then they will face difficulty of expressing theirfeelings and thoughts, even they have got a great capacity of memorizingvocabulary, they afraid of committing mistakes in front of their teachers andfriends, they do avoid using the language in order of not getting involved inany situation that will make them use English. Teachers in Palestine do use GTMin their teaching method, where teachers focus only at reading and writingskills to be taught in their classes, while speaking and listening are havingless importance in their lectures (A. M. M.
AL-Nakhalah, 2016). The method of teaching English inPalestine will not prepare the students to gain the ability of communicatingwith the outer world or foreigner students, their improvement in Englishlanguage speaking will depend only at their environment and the courage tostand and speak out what they have in mind, but still some students do have anxietyin speaking which is a real problem for them, and it has the main negativeimpact at the Palestinian students, at any level of their lives and at anyplace they go, where as the phenomena of anxiety will play as a main part ofthis Study.2.6 SpeakingEnglish In Pakistan For Palestinian Students In Pakistan, from the initial schoolsteachers do teach their students the grammatical structures of Englishlanguage, so that the students can go through the skills smoothly, listening,speaking, reading, and writing. In reading, teachers do provide a particularbooks for the students and the students should read these books as according totheir teachers’ recommendation, that will help the students to speak and makesounds that to be used in their daily lives, and in those books, the teacherswill take out a specific text and translate it into native language to theirstudents, so that the students can understand what they are reading actually,for writing skill, teachers will give the students any text to get it copied bytheir own hand writing, and the teachers also focus on dictation in the class.For the Pakistani schools, they also do give less importance for speaking andlistening skills for the students, but at the university level, where thestudents are asked to know what English actually is, here comes the difficulty,when Pakistani and Palestinian students meet, somehow, both are facing theissues of speaking and communicating, where the Pakistani students cannotunderstand the accent of the Palestinian students, because of theirmother-tongue impact at English language sounds.
In Pakistan, the use of thesounds is little bet different from its original pronunciations of it, andthese differences come in those sounds: the sound /v/ is pronounced as /w/ andvice versa, for example the word where is pronounced as /vhare/,and the word /verb/ is pronounced as /werb/, where also for othersounds as /?/ as in thigh and /?/as in thy, for example the word/thigh/ the actual pronunciation of this sound is /?igh/, but its pronounced inPakistan as /?igh/. Same case for the Palestinian, as mentioned in the previoustopic (Speaking English for Palestinian) and in chapter one, topic (Backgroundof the Study) the mother-tongue in Palestine is Arabic, and the Palestinianstudents do face some difficulties in pronouncing some sounds as in /p/, /g/,and /?/, for example the words pineapple, produce, Pakistan etc are pronouncedas /binable/, /broduce/, and /bakistan/, the other sounds /g/ and /?/ arelearnt while learning English language which the students have less stress forpronouncing these sounds in any situation.