1.1 demand for so many professions, studies or any

1.1             
Background
of the Study

  One of the most commonly used languages in
the world is English language, most of the people around the seven continents
are speaking or dealing with English language, officially, or as native
language, and some other countries who do not use it at all, but if they do not
speak it fluently they are -at least- familiar with the language.

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  The English
language is having nowadays a huge demand for so many professions, studies or
any other international activities. To be in touch with the outer world we have
to learn English, and it depends on the need of a learner or student for their
need of learning English, it might be for an academic purpose, traveling
purpose, business purpose, or maybe as a love for exploring more about a
language. The need of English is increasing day by day for different uses in
life for many fields as in business, traveling, education, media, and sports,
the need of English made them easier for the world to understand and reach to
every house’s doorstep.

  English has affected the other languages, the
users of English they do increase for the sake of perfect communication between
two different parts of the world, in order to avoid miscommunication, and some
people do have to hire a particular translator for better connection, This
process mostly happens in countries that do not use English as their native
language.

  English has travel to be used in all over the
world, now it’s been as a common language for many different countries,
according to Kachru (1985), in his partition of world English (Global English),
English has three different concentric circles: Inner circle which includes the
countries who use English as native language as in (USA, UK), Outer circle
which includes the countries who use English in formal systems as in (Pakistan,
Singapore), and Expanding circle which includes the countries which use English
as a Second Language as in (Arab Countries “Palestine”, Turkey), the difference
is that at the Expanding circle the countries do not use English as a formal
language, they do teach English at their institutes (schools and universities).

  For the countries which use English as a
second language they do face some difficulties in their speaking production, in
pronunciation and their spelling, particularly for Arab countries, in Arabic
language there are many sounds of alphabets which require more stress on the
sound in order to pronounce it clearly, the countries which do use Arabic
language as their mother tongue, they do face difficulties in speaking English
language, because of some missing sounds of English language from Arabic
language and vice versa, for example; the sounds  /p/, /g/, and /?/ in English language, do not
exist in Arabic language, and the sounds /?/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /?/, and /?/ in
Arabic language, do not exist in English language. The pronunciations of non-common
sounds between the two languages make the difficulties of speaking English,
there are other factors that face the students while producing a speech, will
be discussed later in this study (J. E. Flege, R. Port, 1981).

1.2             
Research
Questions

  RQ1 – What are the English
Speaking difficulties that the Palestinian Students in the Universities of
Lahore face?

 
RQ2 – How can these English
Speaking difficulties faced by the Palestinian Students in the Universities of
Lahore be removed?

  RQ3 – How can the change
in curriculum impact these English Speaking difficulties?

1.3             
Objective
of The Study

  The present study has
the following objectives:

·        
To find the
difficulties of speaking English among the Palestinian students.

·        
To check the
abilities of Palestinian students in speaking English at the university level.

·        
To help the
students improve their English speaking skill.

·        
To suggest
recommendations in the light of finding.

·        
To review the
existing relevant literature .

1.4             
Significance
of the Study

 
The significance of the study is that it would highlight major factors
and give in detail information with reference to particular area of the investigation.
It would be helpful to the researchers to explore the remedial measure for
these particular difficulties. The study would be a guideline for the
Palestinian students who are out of their country.

1.5             
Proposed
Methodology

The study

Population

The populations of the study are
Palestinian students in the universities of Lahore in Pakistan.

Sample                       

  The target of the research
is 50 students from three different universities in Lahore city.

Tools  

 
The tools are: 1- questionnaire is given to the students to fill it with
different question and answers, 2- interview is held with the student by the
researcher to let them answer certain questions and talk about any random
topic, the aim of the researcher is to test their 1) grammatical use 2)
pronunciation of words 3) ability of speaking without hesitation, to point out
their speaking difficulties.

Method           Observation/ field notes

Approach
      Quantitative + Qualitative

Quantitative    test apply

Qualitative

 

 

 

 

1.6             
Delimitation
of study

 
The study is considered about the Palestinian students in Lahore, that
it might help the students focus more often on their abilities to use the
English language, more commonly speaking skill.

1.7             
Organization
of the Thesis

Chapter 1
presents the Introduction to the Study, and the materials that are used in the
Study, Chapter 2 presents the Review of Literature related to Study, Chapter 3
shows the methods that are used to collect information’s that are related to
research questions, Chapter 4 presents the Data Analysis of the Study, Chapter
5 presents the Discussion of the Study, Chapter 6 includes Summary, Conclusion
and Recommendation, and Chapter 6 presents the References of the Study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
2

LITERATURE
REVIEW

2.1        Speaking Skill

  Speaking is an act of producing a vocal sound,
which means to converse and express someone thoughts and feelings in a
particular spoken language. It does exist to convey the information’s between
two different persons, and speaking is the door where someone can pass through
to communicate with other people.

  Speaking is the productive skill in oral
communication, and it has three different situations, where do the speakers
find themselves in Interactive,
partially interactive, and non-interactive situations (M. Bashir, M. Azeem, A. H. Dogar, 2011).

2.1.1     Interactive Situations

 
Includes face-to-face conversations
and mobile calls, in which we use listening and speaking alternately, where the
listener can ask for clarification, repetition, and slower speech from the
other partner of a communication (N.K. Baym,
2004).

2.1.2       
Partially
Interactive Situations

 
Where the speaker is
giving a speech to a live audience and the convention is that the audience does
not interrupt the speech.

2.1.3       
Non
Interactive Situations

  Where the
listener cannot see the speaker and interact with the speech as in songs and
radio broadcast.

2.2       
Factors
Affect Speaking English Language

  Speaking English is the most difficult task for English language
learners, and it will remain the most difficult skill for the majority of
learners, and they are still unable to communicate with others orally (Zhang,
2009). There are many factor which cause difficulties, and those factors are,
(Ur, 1996):

2.2.1       
Inhabitation: learners are worried about making mistakes while
speaking in a foreign language, and they are afraid of being criticized by
others to them, or they are shy of getting others attraction by their speech.

2.2.2       
Nothing
to say: the learners may not
have the motivation to express their feelings or thoughts; they keep silence
and do not think in the target language.

2.2.3       
Low
or uneven participation: only one
participant can talk at a time because of large classes and tendency of some
learners to dominate, while others speak very little or not at all.

2.2.4       
Mother-tongue
use: learners who do share the same mother-tongue tend
to use it because it’s easier and the learners will feel less stress if they
speak in their mother-tongue, in the classroom or in other activities out
of  the classroom.

2.3       
English
Language Speaking Purposes

  Torky S. A. E.  (2006) the purpose
of speaking any language as a second language can be either transactional or
interactional. For speaking English as a second language (ESL) there are some
differences between both transactional and interactional discourse.

  In transactional discourse, language is
primarily used for communicating information.

  In interactional discourse, language is used
for establishing or maintaining a relationship.

  According to the study of (ESP) English for specific
purpose, which addresses the communicative needs and practices of a particular
group, the learners learn a language for a specific need or purposes, these
purposes might be as according to Hutchinson, T. and  Waters, A. 
(1987): (EAP)
English for academic purpose, (EOP)
English for occupational purpose, or (EST) science and technology.

  Kingen (2000) according to his analysis of
speaking purposes, combines the purposes of speaking, transactional and
interactional, into twelve categories:

2.3.1       
Personal:
to express personal feelings and thoughts.

2.3.2       
Descriptive:
to describe someone or something, reality or
imagination.

2.3.3       
Narrative:
to create a speech or to make a story with events.

2.3.4       
Instructive: to give any instruction or to provide any direction
made to create outcomes.

2.3.5       
Questioning:
seeking for information by asking questions.

2.3.6       
Comparative: comparing between two or more objects, people,
ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.

2.3.7       
Imaginative:
expressing mental images of people, place, events,
and objects.

2.3.8       
Predictive: predicting possible future events.

2.3.9       
Interpretative:
exploring meanings, creating hypothetical
deductions, and considering inferences.

2.3.10   
Persuasive: changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of
view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way.

2.3.11   
Explanatory: explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and
opinions.

2.3.12   
Informative: sharing information with others.

 

2.4       
Speaking
English For Arabs

  Arab learners of English language run across problems in speaking English
language. Learners of English language, for example, in Syria the students do
learn English in their native language (Arabic), they do learn English only by
private tuitions for English language, in their classrooms where the teachers
use their native language (Arabic) to teach the students at schools or any
other institutions, there is a little use of English language by teachers in
order to deliver a lecture for their students, and to learn English language by
this way there will be a little possibility to acquire English as second or
foreign language. This way is only used if the learner is about to leave the
country and use English language for particular time at a particular place
(Rababah, G. 2002).

  The use of English language in Arab countries
is not compulsory at any proficiency or occupation, Arabic language is the one
which is used most of the time, the people do prefer to communicate in their
own native language for better understanding and sharing of thoughts.

  Arabs do encounter sharp lexical problems
while involving in any English communication event or situation (Zughoul,
1984).

  In most of Arab countries, there are
particular aims of learning English as a foreign language, for example, in
Jordan students are supposed to be able to communicate by different linguistic
functions made for specific everyday events. In Sudan, as Kambal (1980) did characterize
the errors in the verb phrase: verb formation, tense, and subject-verb
agreement. And he argued about errors in: tense sequence, tense substitution,
tense marker, deletion, and confusion of perfect tenses. In Egypt, the learner
they do face difficulty of conveying any message, their mother tongue accent is
a little different from the basic Arabic one, for their pronunciation of sounds
which make these differences, for example, the sentence ( this is an apple)
they pronounce it as (thisi isi an apple), another example, (whatever) they
pronounce it as (what-efear), that which made this difficulty for the Egyptian
learners to acquire English language, or in particular to deliver any message
to someone about something. According to Wahba (1998) “the Egyptian students
face certain problems related to pronunciation. Some of these problems are
related to stress, others are related to intonation. However, most of these
problems can be attributed to the differences in pronunciation between English
and Arabic”.

  In Yemen and Saudi Arabia, the case is
different for the students start to have English classes and courses at schools
after their 7th grade (first preparatory class), within the low
practice of English language for the learners, still they are accepted at any
university of the Arabic world, that what makes the issue increasing by the
passage of the time (abbad, A. T., 1998).

  Arabs do find it difficult to communicate in
their target language, most often, the method of teaching is the matter of
creating these issues for the learners, because in Arab countries they do use
the GTM (grammar translation method) in teaching their students, the students
are not trained well for the use of language in communication purpose.

2.5       
Speaking
English For Palestinian

  Speaking English in Palestine has the same issues of
other Arab countries, where teachers do not focus on developing listening and
speaking skills. For the Palestinian students, English language is not used at
all, perhaps some privet institutes where English is used to teach any English
course, but the lecture will be delivered to students, but teachers, sometimes,
tend to explain things in native language for the students. And for the
government institutes the case is totally different, where the lectures are
delivered in Arabic only. The main aim of teaching English for Palestinian
students is to make them able to communicate with other English speakers by
using productive skills (speaking and writing). For these students, they will
not be aware of their errors while communicating and in case, the students are
aware of these errors then they will face difficulty of expressing their
feelings and thoughts, even they have got a great capacity of memorizing
vocabulary, they afraid of committing mistakes in front of their teachers and
friends, they do avoid using the language in order of not getting involved in
any situation that will make them use English. Teachers in Palestine do use GTM
in their teaching method, where teachers focus only at reading and writing
skills to be taught in their classes, while speaking and listening are having
less importance in their lectures (A. M. M. AL-Nakhalah, 2016).

  The method of teaching English in
Palestine will not prepare the students to gain the ability of communicating
with the outer world or foreigner students, their improvement in English
language speaking will depend only at their environment and the courage to
stand and speak out what they have in mind, but still some students do have anxiety
in speaking which is a real problem for them, and it has the main negative
impact at the Palestinian students, at any level of their lives and at any
place they go, where as the phenomena of anxiety will play as a main part of
this Study.

2.6       
Speaking
English In Pakistan For Palestinian Students

  In Pakistan, from the initial schools
teachers do teach their students the grammatical structures of English
language, so that the students can go through the skills smoothly, listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. In reading, teachers do provide a particular
books for the students and the students should read these books as according to
their teachers’ recommendation, that will help the students to speak and make
sounds that to be used in their daily lives, and in those books, the teachers
will take out a specific text and translate it into native language to their
students, so that the students can understand what they are reading actually,
for writing skill, teachers will give the students any text to get it copied by
their own hand writing, and the teachers also focus on dictation in the class.
For the Pakistani schools, they also do give less importance for speaking and
listening skills for the students, but at the university level, where the
students are asked to know what English actually is, here comes the difficulty,
when Pakistani and Palestinian students meet, somehow, both are facing the
issues of speaking and communicating, where the Pakistani students cannot
understand the accent of the Palestinian students, because of their
mother-tongue impact at English language sounds. In Pakistan, the use of the
sounds is little bet different from its original pronunciations of it, and
these differences come in those sounds: the sound /v/ is pronounced as /w/ and
vice versa, for example the word where is pronounced as /vhare/,
and the word /verb/ is pronounced as /werb/, where also for other
sounds as /?/ as in thigh and /?/as in thy, for example the word
/thigh/ the actual pronunciation of this sound is /?igh/, but its pronounced in
Pakistan as /?igh/. Same case for the Palestinian, as mentioned in the previous
topic (Speaking English for Palestinian) and in chapter one, topic (Background
of the Study) the mother-tongue in Palestine is Arabic, and the Palestinian
students do face some difficulties in pronouncing some sounds as in /p/, /g/,
and /?/, for example the words pineapple, produce, Pakistan etc are pronounced
as /binable/, /broduce/, and /bakistan/, the other sounds /g/ and /?/ are
learnt while learning English language which the students have less stress for
pronouncing these sounds in any situation.