1.1 in 2017, 65% in 2018, 90% in 2019

1.1    
Denmark

Government
of Denmark subsidizes purchase of FCVs with exempting them from registration
taxes. The imposed taxes are usually up to 180% of the vehicle price 57. This tax
exemption means that the government provides indirect support of more than EUR 23,000
for each FCV 58. However,
from 2016, BEVs are included in the same tax scheme of petrol and diesel cars.
The increase in registration tax is gradually phased in, at 20% of the full tax
in 2016, 40% in 2017, 65% in 2018, 90% in 2019 and 100% in 2020.  Hydrogen and fuel cell?powered vehicles are
exempt from registration tax until the end of 2018 59. This has
been one of the reasons of the drop in electric car sales (-68%) observed in
2016 in Denmark 19. As of
2017, Denmark is introducing a purchase tax rebate on electric cars based on
battery capacity of USD 225/kWh up to a maximum of 45kWh 19. Exemption
of FCVs from registration tax is continued until the end of 2018 60.

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Public funding for R&D and demonstration of refueling stations are
available in Denmark which range from DKK1
0.5 – 15 million 61. Companies
in Denmark supplying EV charging on a commercial basis can receive an
electricity tax rebate of approximately DKK 1 per kWh 62.

As of September 2017, there are 10 HRSs in operation in Denmark 63. As of July
2017, there are 2,030 publicly-accessible EV charging stations in Denmark 64.

As of September 2017, there were 68 FCVs in Denmark 63. In 2015, there
were 8100 EVs in Denmark 62. Table 23 shows
Denmark’s target for number of HRSs and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65.

Table
23. Denmark’s target for
number of HRSs and FCVs for 2025 and 2050 65

Year 

2025

2050

Number of HRSs

100-200

500-1000

Number of FCVs

50,000-100,000

50% of car fleet

 

Denmark’s energy projection for 2050 aims
almost 100% fossil independence. While 50% of the car fleet is projected to be
FCVs and 45% is projected to be BEVs and PHEVs, a margin of 5% is left for
conventional fuels 57.
These projections were considered in 2014 and may change due to the change of
Denmark’s support policy toward electric vehicles.

1.2    
Sweden

In Sweden, a
premium purchase rebate is granted for the purchase of a new electric or hybrid
electric vehicle 59:

– SEK2
40,000 for cars with zero CO2 emissions

– SEK 20,000
for cars with CO2 emissions between 1 and 50g/km

A five-year
exemption from annual circulation tax for electric vehicles with a maximum fuel
economy of 37 kWh/100km is also available in Sweden.

HRSs development in Sweden are supported with
funding and contribution from European and local institutions (municipalities
for instance). Sweden offers financial support for the development of charging
infrastructure which amounted to SEK 130 million in 2015 19.
As of
October 2017, there are 4 HRSs in Sweden 54.

Table 24 shows the number of accessible chargers in Sweden
from 2012 to 2016.

Table
24. Number of accessible chargers in Sweden (2012-2016) 19

Year

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Publicly accessible slow chargers

500

1000

1070

1824

2215

Publicly accessible fast chargers

5

20

135

343

523

Total

505

1020

1205

2167

2738

 

Table 25
shows BEV and PHEV stock in Sweden from 2012 to 2016.

Table
25. BEV and PHEV stock in
Sweden (2012-2016) 19

year

Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands)
 

2012

1.11 (41% BEV, 59%
PHEV)

2013

2.66  (33% BEV, 67% PHEV)

2014

7.32  (29% BEV, 71% PHEV)

2015

15.91  (32% BEV, 68% PHEV)

2016

29.33  (27% BEV, 73% PHEV)

 

As of May 2016, Sweden had 8 FCVs on
the road 66.

Sweden has a target of
achieving a fossil fuel-independent vehicle fleet by 2030 67.
Through Nordic Hydrogen Corridor, Sweden is targeting for
opening 8 new hydrogen
refueling stations, adding 100 fuel cell electric vehicles and achieving
renewable hydrogen production by 2020 68.

1.3    
 State of California

Through a
project called Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), California offers up to
$7,000 in electric vehicle rebates for the purchase or lease of eligible
zero-emissions and plug-in hybrid vehicles. The Center for Sustainable Energy (CSE)
administers CVRP for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 69. 

A rebate
of 5000 USD is available for the following models of FCVs 69: Honda
Clarity Fuel Cell                   
(2017), Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell (2015 – 2017), Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell
Vehicle (2016 – 2017).

A rebate
of 2500 USD is available for the following models of BEVs 69: BLUECAR
Bluecar (2016, Fleets only), BMW i3 (2014 – 2017), BYD e6 (2012 – 2017, Fleets
only), Chevrolet Bolt EV (2017), Chevrolet Spark EV (2014 – 2016), Fiat 500e
(2013 – 2017), Ford Focus Electric (2012 – 2018), Honda Clarity Electric
(2017), Hyundai Ioniq Electric (2017), Kia Soul EV (2015 – 2017), Mercedes-Benz
B250e (2014 – 2017), Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2012, 2014, 2016, 2017), Nissan LEAF
(2011 – 2017), smart (2011, 2013 – 2017), Tesla Model 3 (2017), Tesla Model S (2012
– 2017), Tesla Model X (2016 – 2017), Volkswagen e-Golf (2015 – 2017)

A rebate
of 1500 USD is available for the following models of PHEVs 69: Audi A3
e-tron (2016 – 2017), BMW 530e (2018), Cadillac ELR (2014, 2016), Chevrolet
Volt (2012 – 2018, ONLY Low Emissions Package), Chrysler Pacifica (2017 –
2018), Ford C-MAX Energi (2013 – 2017), Ford Fusion Energi (2013 – 2018),
Hyundai Sonata Plug-in Hybrid (2016 – 2017), Kia Optima Plug-in Hybrid (2017),
Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (2018), Toyota Prius Prime (2017), Volvo S90 T8
(2018), Volvo XC60 T8 (2018), Volvo XC90 T8 (2018)

State of California supports the development of
hydrogen refueling stations. Through a program called AB 8, California has
co-funded 62 hydrogen fueling station projects as of October 2017 54.  Through the AB 8 program, $20 million is
allocated annually until there are at least 100 publicly available
hydrogen-fueling stations in California 70.

1
Exchange rate for Danish Krone in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.16
USD

2 Exchange
rate for Swedish Krona in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.12 USD