1.1 Thinking About Development Key Aspects of human- development Nature vs Nurture-genetics and the environment influence human development. Continuity and Discontinuity – the path of development could represent a smooth pathway throughout the life span or series of sudden changes.
Universal and Context-Specific Development – whether there is just one path of development or several paths. Developmental Theories Name the theorist who is responsible for life span view? Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development a) basic trust vs. mistrust (birth to 1 year) Developing a sense that the world is a safe good place b) autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1- 3 years) To realize that one is independent person who can make decisions c) Initiative vs. guilt (2-6 years) develop the ability to try new things and handle failure d)Industry vs.
inferiority (6 years to adolescence) To learn basic skills and to work with others. 4.What is Jean Piaget responsible for? Creating the Piagets 4 stages of Connitive Development theory. a)Sensorimotor – Birth to 2 years, infant’s knowledge of the world is based on sense and motor skills b)Preoperational Thought- 2-6 years, learns how to use symbols such as as worlds and numbers to represent aspect of the world c)Concrete operational thought- 7 years to early adolescence, Child understands and applies logical operations to experiences provided they are focused on the here and now d)Formal operational thought- Adolescence and beyond, Adult thinks abstractly, deals with hypothetical situations, and speculates what may be possible Chapter Two : Biological Foundations 2.1 In the Beginning Define chromosomes and genes? Gene is the genetic material that makes a person and a chromosomes contains genes. Each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46. All of a person’s genes make up a genotype; the phenotype are the physical, behavioral, and psychological characteristics. It is developed when the genotype is exposed certain environments.
Different forms of the same gene are called alleles. Conception to Birth The first two weeks after conception the egg is fertilized by the sperm in the fallopian tube. The fertilized egg implant itself in the wall of the uterus. The second period of prenatal development occurs 2 weeks after conception and lasts until the end of the eighth week. It’s a period of rapid growth in which most major body structures are created The third period is when body systems begin to function well enough to support life. It begins nine weeks after conception and lasts until birth.
Chapter 3: New Born 3.1 Physical Development Babies must eat a large number of calories related to their body weight, because of the energy required for growth. Malnutrition is a worldwide problem that is particularly harmful during infancy, when growth is so rapid. Beginning at about 15 months, infants begin to recognize themselves in the mirror, which is one of the first signs of self-recognition. Children’s theory of mind becomes progressively more sophisticated. Chapter 4: The Emergence of Thought and Language 4.1 On set of thinking In Piaget’s perspective, children understanding of the world by creating schemes, categories of related events, objects, and knowledge.
With infants’ schemes are based on actions, but older children’s and adolescents’ schemes are based on functional, conceptual, and abstract properties. Remember that infants use habituation to filter unimportant stimuli. Where else older kids, preschoolers lack the attention span and are less able to pay attention to task-relevant information. Vygotsky believed that cognition develops first in a social setting and only gradually comes under the child’s independent control.
Chapter 5: Entering the Social World 5.1 Beginning Attachment is an enduring socioemotional relationship between infant and parent. Bowlby’s (Created the Attachment theory) theory of attachment is rooted in evolutionary psychology and describes four stages in the development of attachment: preattachment, attachment in the making, true attachment, and reciprocal relationships. Gender-schema theory children learn about gender by paying attention to behaviors of members of their own sex and ignoring behaviors of members of the other sex. Gender stereotypes are beliefs about males and females that are often used to make inferences about a person that are based solely on his or her gender Chapter 6 : Off to School 6.1 Cognitive Development Piaget’s stage of concrete operations- kids become less hyper, thinking becomes more concrete and real. Formal-operational- adolescents can think hypothetically and reason abstractly. Age 7 or 8 children start to use rehearsal and other memory strategies.
Basically, means transferring info to working memory which temporary stores info. While the long-term memory permanently stores information. B. Nature of Intelligence Gardner’s theory consist of multiple intelligences proposes ( 9) His theory has lead research on nontraditional forms of intelligence, such as emotional intelligence. Robert Sternberg- stated that intelligence equals abilities to achieve short- and long-term goals Chapter 7: Expanding Social Horizons 7.
1: Family Relationships There’s four prototypic parental styles (authoritarian parent- controlling but not involved, authoritative parents- slightly controlling but also responsive to their children, permissive parents- loving but zero control and uninvolved parents-not warm or cold, don’t care.) Child abuse includes poverty, social isolation, and a culture’s views on violence. Children with friends are more skilled socially and are better adjusted Selman’s theory- states children’s understanding of how others think progresses through five stages. Chapter 8: Rites of Passage 8.1 Pubertal Changes Puberty is basically the bodily changes in height, weight as well as sexual maturation.
The pituitary gland signals the adrenal gland, ovaries, and testes to secrete hormones that initiate physical changes Working memory increases, and processing speed becomes faster. The stage of adolescents can solve problems analytically, using mathematics or logic. Kohlberg theory shine light on that moral reasoning includes preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels. Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult World 9.
1 Identity and Self-Esteem Adolescents achieve an identity when parents encourage and recognize their autonomy. Adolescents think they are constantly being watched and that no one else can relate to their problems. Usually self-esteem dips low during this transition. The parent child relationship becomes more egalitarian during the adolescent years, usually that’s when adolescents seek more independence.
Chapter 10: Becoming an Adult 10.1 Emerging Adulthood Role transitions- assuming new responsibilities and duties. The drop from riskless behavior from adolescence into adulthood marks the transtion into adulthood The two important social factors in health are socioeconomic status and education. Baltes’s research states that development in adults varies among individuals and across different categories of abilities. Fluid vs Crystallized intelligence – fluid intelligence are flexible and adaptive thinkers. While crystallized reflects knowledge from life experience and education.
Chapter 11: Being with Others 11.1 Relationships Men tend to have fewer close friendships while women tend to have more close friendships based on intimate and emotional sharing. Key ingredients of love are passion, intimacy, and commitment. Family cycle framework- understanding the changes families go through as children mature.
Chapter 12 Work Leisure and Retirment 12.1 Occupational Selection and Development Holland’s theory – people choose occupations to fit their individual traits and their occupational interests. Gender bias is the main barrier to women’s occupational development. Important reasons people change occupations include personality, obsolescence, and economic trends.