1. INTRODUCTION :
Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on
the internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim by hacker
or cracker2. while we growth on fast data manipulating system in this
technology era , Unfortunately, some of the skilled professionals use this
ability in a bad way by harming society, by finding the vulnerabilities in the
companies systems and tacking them, creating and
the term ‘cyber crime’ is a misnomer.Mainly the concept of cyber crime is
notradically different from the concept of conventional crime.2
recent year privacy and ethical behavior play important role in our lives .it
is especially important in the security related areas1.
What is Cyber Crime :
crime is the latest and perhaps the most
problem in the cyber world. “Cyber crime may
said to be those species, of which, genus is the
crime, and where either the computer is an
or subject of the conduct constituting crime” “Any
activity that uses a computer either as an
target or a means for perpetuating further
comes within the ambit of cyber crime”
generalized definition of cyber crime may be
acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target
both” The computer may be used as a tool in the following
of activity- financial crimes, sale of illegal articles,
online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-
spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking. The
may however be target for unlawful acts in the
cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer
computer networks, theft of information contained
the electronic form, e-mail bombing, data didling, salami
logic bombs, Trojan attacks, internet time thefts,
jacking, theft of computer system, physically damaging
Who is Hacker :
are hundreds and hundreds definitions of “hackers” on the
Combining it all together we get a computer enthusiast, who
learning programming languages and computer systems
can often be considered an expert on the subject, who
the art and science of making computers and software
much more than the original designers intended. “Hackers are
professionals, with skills… Hackers built the Internet.
made the Unix operating system what it is today.
run Usenet. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If
are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and other
in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you’re a
to Raymond, real hackers consider crackers lazy,
and not very bright and want nothing to do with
Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been
into using the word “hacker” to describe “crackers”, which
obviously upsets real hackers
is cracker :
person who breaks into other people’s computer systems to get
kick out of it or who intent to cause harm is a “cracker”.
hacker is a very talented programmer, respected by his peers. A
hacker can find plenty of useful projects to work on; breaking
is more a characteristic of children of any age. The basic
is this: hackers build things; crackers break them.
Reasons for Cyber Crime:
Concept of Law” has said ‘human beings are
so rule of law is required to protect them’.
this to the cyberspace we may say that computers
vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and
them against cyber crime. The reasons for the
of computers may be said to be:
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space: The
has unique characteristic of storing data in a
small space. This affords to remove or derive
either through physical or virtual medium
it much easier.
Easy to access: The problem encountered in guarding a
system from unauthorised access is that there
every possibility of breach not due to human error but
the complex technology. By secretly implanted
bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina
imagers etc. that can fool
systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to
past many a security system.
The computers work on operating systems and
operating systems in turn are composed of millions
codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not possible
there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber
take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate
the computer system.
Negligence: Negligence is very closely connected with
conduct. It is therefore very probable that while
the computer system there might be any
which in turn provides a cyber criminal to
access and control over the computer system.
Loss of evidence: Loss of evidence is a very common &
problem as all the data are routinely destroyed.
collection of data outside the territorial extent
paralyses this system of crime investigation.
Types Of Cyber Crime :
kind of activity refers to sending large
of mail to the victim, which may be an individual or
company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting
kind of an attack involves altering raw
just before a computer processes it and then changing
back after the processing is completed. The electricity
faced similar problem of data diddling while the
was being computerised.
kind of crime is normally prevalent in
financial institutions or for the purpose of committing
crimes. An important feature of this type of offence
that the alteration is so small that it would normally go
E.g. the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was
in the bank’s system, which deducted 10 cents
every account and deposited it in a particular account.
of Service attack:
computer of the victim is flooded
more requests than it can handle which cause it to
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoss) attack is also a
of denial of service attack, in which the offenders are
in number and widespread.
term has its origin in the word ‘Trojan
In software field this means an unauthorized
which passively gains control over another’s
by representing itself as an authorised programme.
most common form of installing a Trojan is through e-
E.g. a Trojan was installed in the computer of a lady
director in the U.S. while chatting. The cyber criminal
the web cam installed in the computer obtained her
photographs. He further harassed this lady.
Normally in these kinds of thefts the
surfing hours of the victim are used up by another
This is done by gaining access to the login ID and
password. E.g. Colonel Bajwa’s case- the Internet hours
used up by any other person. This was perhaps one of
first reported cases related to cyber crime in India.
this case made the police infamous as to their lack
understanding of the nature of cyber crime.
term is derived from the term hi jacking. In
kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control
the web site of another. He may even mutilate or change
information on the site. This may be done for fulfilling
objectives or for money. E.g. recently the site of MIT
of Information Technology) was hacked by the
hackers and some obscene matter was placed
Further the site of Bombay crime branch was also
jacked. Another case of web jacking is that of the ‘gold
case. In this case the site was hacked and the
pertaining to gold fish was changed. Further a
of US $ 1 million was demanded as ransom. Thus
jacking is a process whereby control over the site of
is made backed by some consideration for it.
Protection from cyber Crime :
and its subcategory cyber-terrorism, is a growing
that must be addressed accordingly. Dr. Les
from the California Berkley University suggests two
proactive and reactive. Most organizations adopt a
approach to information security. The vulnerability of
is usually evaluated after an attack takes place, resulting
money spent on fixing the security holes and recovering from
data and business loss. This is the least effective, and more
approach. The proactive approach said to demonstrate
that try to locate security holes before the hackers
The proactive approach is sometimes called “ethical hacking”.
of human mind is unfathomable. It is
possible to eliminate cyber crime from the cyber
It is quite possible to check them. History is the
that no legislation has succeeded in totally
crime from the globe. The only possible
is to make people aware of their rights and duties
report crime as a collective duty towards the
and further making the application of the laws
stringent to check crime. Undoubtedly the Act is
historical step in the cyber world. Further I all
do not deny that there is a need to bring
in the Information Technology Act to make it
effective to combat cyber crime. I would conclude
a word of caution for the pro-legislation school
it should be kept in mind that the provisions of
cyber law are not made so stringent that it may
the growth of the industry and prove to be