1. concept of cyber crime is notradically different from

                              

 

1. INTRODUCTION :

 

 Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on
the internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim by hacker
or cracker2. while we growth on fast data manipulating system in this
technology era , Unfortunately, some of the skilled professionals use this
ability in a bad way by harming society, by finding the vulnerabilities in the
companies systems and tacking them, creating and

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distributing
virus-containing codes1.

 

Here
the term ‘cyber crime’ is a misnomer.Mainly the concept of cyber crime is
notradically different from the concept of conventional crime.2

In
recent year privacy and ethical behavior play important role in our lives .it
is especially important in the security related areas1.

 

2.
What is Cyber Crime :

 

Cyber
crime is the latest and perhaps the most

complicated
problem in the cyber world. “Cyber crime may

be
said to be those species, of which, genus is the

conventional
crime, and where either the computer is an

object
or subject of the conduct constituting crime” “Any

criminal
activity that uses a computer either as an

instrumentality,
target or a means for perpetuating further

crimes
comes within the ambit of cyber crime”

A
generalized definition of cyber crime may be

“unlawful
acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target

or
both” The computer may be used as a tool in the following

kinds
of activity- financial crimes, sale of illegal articles,

pornography,
online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-

mail
spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking. The

computer
may however be target for unlawful acts in the

following
cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer

system/
computer networks, theft of information contained

in
the electronic form, e-mail bombing, data didling, salami

attacks,
logic bombs, Trojan attacks, internet time thefts,

web
jacking, theft of computer system, physically damaging

the
computer system.

 

3.
Who is Hacker :

 

There
are hundreds and hundreds definitions of “hackers” on the

Web.
Combining it all together we get a computer enthusiast, who

enjoys
learning programming languages and computer systems

and
can often be considered an expert on the subject, who

mastered
the art and science of making computers and software

do
much more than the original designers intended. “Hackers are

computer
professionals, with skills… Hackers built the Internet.

Hackers
made the Unix operating system what it is today.

Hackers
run Usenet. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If

you
are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and other

people
in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you’re a

hacker.

According
to Raymond, real hackers consider crackers lazy,

irresponsible,
and not very bright and want nothing to do with

them.
Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been

fooled
into using the word “hacker” to describe “crackers”, which

is
obviously upsets real hackers

 

4.Who
is cracker :

 

A
person who breaks into other people’s computer systems to get

a
kick out of it or who intent to cause harm is a “cracker”.

 

A
hacker is a very talented programmer, respected by his peers. A

true
hacker can find plenty of useful projects to work on; breaking

things
is more a characteristic of children of any age. The basic

difference
is this: hackers build things; crackers break them.

 

5.
Reasons for Cyber Crime:

 

“The
Concept of Law” has said ‘human beings are

vulnerable
so rule of law is required to protect them’.

Applying
this to the cyberspace we may say that computers

are
vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and

safeguard
them against cyber crime. The reasons for the

vulnerability
of computers may be said to be:

1.
Capacity to store data in comparatively small space: The

computer
has unique characteristic of storing data in a

very
small space. This affords to remove or derive

information
either through physical or virtual medium

makes
it much easier.

2.
Easy to access: The problem encountered in guarding a

computer
system from unauthorised access is that there

is
every possibility of breach not due to human error but

due to
the complex technology. By secretly implanted

logic
bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina
imagers etc. that can fool

biometric
systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to

get
past many a security system.

3. Complex:
The computers work on operating systems and

these
operating systems in turn are composed of millions

of
codes. Human mind is fallible and it is not possible

that
there might not be a lapse at any stage. The cyber

criminals
take advantage of these lacunas and penetrate

into
the computer system.

4.
Negligence: Negligence is very closely connected with

human
conduct. It is therefore very probable that while

protecting
the computer system there might be any

negligence,
which in turn provides a cyber criminal to

gain
access and control over the computer system.

5.
Loss of evidence: Loss of evidence is a very common &

obvious
problem as all the data are routinely destroyed.

Further
collection of data outside the territorial extent

also
paralyses this system of crime investigation.

 

6.
Types Of Cyber Crime :

 

Email
bombing:

 

This
kind of activity refers to sending large

numbers
of mail to the victim, which may be an individual or

a
company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting

into
crashing.

 

Data
diddling:

 

This
kind of an attack involves altering raw

data
just before a computer processes it and then changing

it
back after the processing is completed. The electricity

board
faced similar problem of data diddling while the

department
was being computerised.

 

Salami
attacks:

 

This
kind of crime is normally prevalent in

the
financial institutions or for the purpose of committing

financial
crimes. An important feature of this type of offence

is
that the alteration is so small that it would normally go

unnoticed.
E.g. the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was

introduced
in the bank’s system, which deducted 10 cents

from
every account and deposited it in a particular account.

 

Denial
of Service attack:

 

The
computer of the victim is flooded

with
more requests than it can handle which cause it to

crash.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoss) attack is also a

type
of denial of service attack, in which the offenders are

wide
in number and widespread.

Trojan
attacks:

 

This
term has its origin in the word ‘Trojan

horse’.
In software field this means an unauthorized

programme,
which passively gains control over another’s

system
by representing itself as an authorised programme.

The
most common form of installing a Trojan is through e-

mail.
E.g. a Trojan was installed in the computer of a lady

film
director in the U.S. while chatting. The cyber criminal

through
the web cam installed in the computer obtained her

nude
photographs. He further harassed this lady.

 

Internet
time thefts:

 

 Normally in these kinds of thefts the

Internet
surfing hours of the victim are used up by another

person.
This is done by gaining access to the login ID and

the
password. E.g. Colonel Bajwa’s case- the Internet hours

were
used up by any other person. This was perhaps one of

the
first reported cases related to cyber crime in India.

However
this case made the police infamous as to their lack

of
understanding of the nature of cyber crime.

 

Web
jacking:

 

This
term is derived from the term hi jacking. In

these
kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control

over
the web site of another. He may even mutilate or change

the
information on the site. This may be done for fulfilling

political
objectives or for money. E.g. recently the site of MIT

(Ministry
of Information Technology) was hacked by the

Pakistani
hackers and some obscene matter was placed

therein.
Further the site of Bombay crime branch was also

web
jacked. Another case of web jacking is that of the ‘gold

fish’
case. In this case the site was hacked and the

information
pertaining to gold fish was changed. Further a

ransom
of US $ 1 million was demanded as ransom. Thus

web
jacking is a process whereby control over the site of

another
is made backed by some consideration for it.

 

 

7.
Protection from cyber Crime :

 

Hacking
and its subcategory cyber-terrorism, is a growing

problem
that must be addressed accordingly. Dr. Les

Labuschagne
from the California Berkley University suggests two

approaches:
proactive and reactive. Most organizations adopt a

reactive
approach to information security. The vulnerability of

systems
is usually evaluated after an attack takes place, resulting

in
money spent on fixing the security holes and recovering from

the
data and business loss. This is the least effective, and more

expensive
approach. The proactive approach said to demonstrate

organizations
that try to locate security holes before the hackers

do.
The proactive approach is sometimes called “ethical hacking”.

 

8 .
Conclusion :

 

Capacity
of human mind is unfathomable. It is

not
possible to eliminate cyber crime from the cyber

space.
It is quite possible to check them. History is the

witness
that no legislation has succeeded in totally

eliminating
crime from the globe. The only possible

step
is to make people aware of their rights and duties

(to
report crime as a collective duty towards the

society)
and further making the application of the laws

more
stringent to check crime. Undoubtedly the Act is

a
historical step in the cyber world. Further I all

together
do not deny that there is a need to bring

changes
in the Information Technology Act to make it

more
effective to combat cyber crime. I would conclude

with
a word of caution for the pro-legislation school

that
it should be kept in mind that the provisions of

the
cyber law are not made so stringent that it may

retard
the growth of the industry and prove to be

counter-productive.