1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study is to explore the issues of misconduct among RMP and why officer in IPK Selangor involve in the most disciplinary action. This research is to corroborate with the idea that unethical employee behavior prevents maximum achievement of the organization (Schnatterly, 2003). In addition, ethical behavioral norms can provide a unique competitive advantage to an organization (Baglini, 2001). Thus, when it comes to malpractice it is something that cannot be tolerated since it will lead to misconduct and what else if the involvement of RMP themselves. Definitely it will give bad perception to the public. According to Sulaiman (2005), although such perceptions may be prone to bias and inaccurate, these indicators are the perceptions given by the Malaysian community. Therefore, this study examined to identify what are the factors of malpractices which lead to misconduct and breach the rule of integrity. Apart from that this study is also to answer why officer in IPK Selangor involve in the most disciplinary action as compared to other states. In the same the study is also to examine the most influence factor that lead to misconduct among the RMP.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT The issue of the number RMP officer is defined as the gap between the high rates and the lowest rates involvement in misconduct. The problem of misconduct is currently shackling in IPK Selangor. This can be seen for the year of 2017, complaint against RMP officer is the highest among the other enforcement agencies. This can be illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2. RMP recorded 80.8% from the total complaint as compared to Industrial Relation, Ministry of Tourism Malaysia and Department of Wildlife and National Park each represent 0%. Figure 1 Figure 2Apart from that, IPK Selangor recorded the highest involvement in disciplinary action as compared to Pulapol Langkawi and Maktab Teknik Muar. The number of involvement officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor contributed to 16% (the highest) from the overall as compared to Pulapol Langkawi and Maktab Teknik Muar which represent 0%. This explanation can be illustrated at Figure 3 and Figure 4 below. Souce from the Integrity and Compliance Department (JIPS), 2017Figure 3 Souce from the Integrity and Compliance Department (JIPS), 2017Figure 4The issues of misconduct is an important matters that need to be resolved since it has a strong connection with the principle of integrity. As far as the law is concern integrity within the police institution is an important subject in Malaysia especially to drive the country towards becoming a developed nation by 2020. It can be seen that the government has taken steps to tight up the integrity of civil servants, especially police personnel in enforcing the principles of integrity and accountability towards excellent public service through “Service Circular No. 6 of 2013”. Additionally, in 2009, the Prime Minister of Malaysia introduced the action of “The Strengthening Movement of Integrated Management System of the Government of Malaysia: Establishment of the Corporate Governance Integrity Committee”. The breach of the rule of integrity it will direct the civil service to inefficient of administration as well as poor in handling cope problems and weaknesses in various aspects of governance such as financial management, handling of disciplinary cases, corruption, abuse of power and irregularities that are prohibited by law, legislation and religion (Jamiah, 2007). 3. LITERATURE REVIEWEach individual is responsible for the formation of their own integrity so that he will not involve in misconduct. It is very important to create good morals through habits and training (Wakin, 1996). The previous study found that integrity has a positive relationship with individual well-being (Widang & Fridlund, 2003). A lot of study has resulted in a large investigation that proved a lot of police misconduct occurred. Disputes among the researchers convey the theory of police misconduct reflects the complexity of this phenomenon (Groeneveld, 2005). Thus this literature review will highlight the factors which contribute to the highest involvement number of RMP in misconduct.Level of education reflect the attitude of the RMP officerBased on Crockett (2005) ethical and integrity education can enhance understanding and awareness of the importance of ethics, morals and integrity and complexity. It aims to develop analytical skills to create ethical decision making, to increase sensitivity and accountability among members of the organization on the importance of ethical, moral and integrity development within the organization and to influence or alter the conduct of employees to the desired level.On the other hand, if the organization does not concentrate on the development and strengthening of ethics and integrity among its members then there will be issues that can affect the image and reputation of the organization where the absence of a strong moral principle among organizational members can lead to deviant behavior because the individual concerned does not attempt to judge any behavior or action with rational and moral considerations (Baxter and Rarick 1987).As regard to the police institution, practitioners have long debated the impact of higher education on police officer performance (Manis, Archbold,& Hassell, 2008). According to Roberg & Boon (2004) the impact of higher education on police of?cer performance has been studied extensively over the last three decades. The higher education in the police force is always tied to the assumption that university learning experience will produce “better” police officers. This happened during a police professional reform when many studies were placed on corrupt and inefficient officials (Walker, 1977). Between the education level and the better police officers have never been described, although it is implied that those with college experience will be more responsible and more suitable for complex crime (Carter et al., 1989). For example, highly educated officers are found to have higher levels of community satisfaction assessment, and lack of complaints from the public as opposed to their less educated counterparts (Kappeler, 1992). Educated officials were also found to have received higher ratings from their superiors (Finnegan, 1976), and were not negligent when performing their duties (Cascio, 1977). In addition, highly educated officers were considered less authoritarian (Dalley, 1975), placed higher values on ethical behavior (Shernock, 1992). Highly educated officials also have more open beliefs (Roberg, 1978), and become better oral communicators (Worden, 1990). Thus, in summary it tend to suggest that there are significant differences between the characteristics of police with a good educational background.Quantity of work lead to pressure of RMP officer. Pressure of work is a negative phenomenon in working environment and it’s occur because of too many task to be completed or even failure in terms of time management. In police institution, the unexpected matter is one of the problem of working pressure among RMP Officers who are currently a growing and worrying matter (Masilamani et al., 2013). According to Masilamani et. al., (2013) also Inspector-General in Malaysia ranks more Inspector over high work pressure than other Police Officers due to his heavy responsibility in terms of quantity of work including the investigation of cases, special duties, commercial crimes, special operations (combating terrorism) and narcotics crimes. This causes them to be burdened with overtime work that is tiring due to lack of rest. When working time increases, quality time with family will also decrease and will lower their motivation and thus affect the performance of the work that will be produced (Ali, 2003). Apart from the quantity of work they also has other tasks including the overtime work which require them to participate in various operations and raids outside normal office hours between 8am and 5pm. This situation also contributes to police pressure (Nasaruddin & Muhd Amirul, 2011). The routine uncertainty of police work in terms of time, various skills and knowledge demands causes police personnel to have a high level of pressure (Ainsworth & Pease 1987).Thus, in summary, the high quantity of work will lead to pressure among the police and has had a huge impact in performing their duties efficiently which indirectly affect one’s behaviour until the occurrence of misconduct. Relation between the amount of earning and taking bribery by RMP. Misconduct of the police not only happened because of lower education and receive a lot of quantity of work. It can be also because of having lower salary. Deputy Prime Minister Datuk Seri Ahmad Zahid Hamidi acknowledged that the lower pay is one of the factor contributed to the misconduct and corruption among police, but it was not the main cause. He also said that the problem was further fueled by the willingness of a few policemen to live in luxury beyond actual capabilities.This is also supported by a study conducted by Transparency International Global Corruption in May 2014 found that PDRM is the most institution high corruption cases with 4.1 / 5.0 ratio compared to other institutions.Overall study made by Quah (1995), the salary is the main factor contributing to corruption. Low salary it has been an encouragement to civil servants to engage themselves with the symptoms of corruption. Often workers – the public employers assume a salary provided by the government in the public sector is insufficient. Not to mention when they make comparisons with salaries provided by the sector private. The problem of low salary is considered as a traditional concept which is still held until now. From Quah’s study also, she stated corruption in Indonesia has begun since the Dutch colonial period. The cause of corruption at that time was also due to low wages. As well as the Chinese state where corruption began there because of the civil servant salary low. This is also a cause or problem for other countries which is often faced with this issue. Because it is often a problem of corruption the majority of them involved public workers. Similarly with Malaysia which links corruption with low wages.In summary, the amount of earning can be one of the factor resulting misconduct among the RMP officer. 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONSRQ1: What are the factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor?RQ2: How does the level of education have significant relation on factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor?RQ3: How does the quantity of work have significant relation on factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor?RQ4: How does the amount of earning have significant relation on factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor?5. RESEARCH OBJECTIVESRO1: To determine the factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor.RO2: To examine the significant relation between level of education and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor.RO3: To study the significant relation between quantity of work and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. RO4: To justify the significant relation between the amount of earning and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor.6. HYPOTHESES HYPOTHESIS 1:Ho1 : There is no significant relationship between level of education and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. Ha1 : There is a significant relationship between level of education and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. HYPOTHESIS 2: Ho1 : There is no significant relationship between quantity of work and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. Ha1 : There is a significant relationship between quantity of work and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. HYPOTHESIS 3: Ho1 : There is no significant relationship between the amount of earning and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. Ha1 : There is a significant relationship between the amount of earning and factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct at IPK Selangor. 7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKThe theoretical framework for this study has been shown as in Figure 5. Basically the framework is to show the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables.Figure 5: Theoretical Framework on the factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct 8. RESEARCH DESIGNResearch design is a strategy in delivering the direction in every research. This research is based on a cross-sectional study whereby the data will be collected from the respondent at one time. It describe the factors supported by quantitative values of the response for each factor to explain the reason of involvement of RMP officer in misconduct. Cross sectional study is chosen to provide a generalization at the specific time horizon, where the data is gathered only one time. The research is a correlational study to determine the relationship between independent variables (IV) and dependent variable (DV). The setting of the study is based on non-contrived where research can be done in the natural environment. In furtherance, it is a field study that will be conducted in the natural setting with minimal interference and data collected will not interfere the normal activities.Apart from that, the unit of analysis of the research is individually where the level of education, quantity of work and the amount of earning is measured individually before conclusion is drawn from the data. The sampling method chosen is stratified random sampling and the sample size is determined from Krecjie and Morgan (1970).The approach of analysis is descriptive and inferential. In descriptive analysis, measure of central tendency will be done to determine to mode, median and mean according to suitability. In inferential analysis, it uses statistical tests to see whether a pattern we observe is due to chance or due to intervention effects. Research often uses inferential analysis to determine if there is a relationship between an intervention and an outcome as well as the strength of that relationship. All this process has been summary in Table 1 as below.9. MEASUREMENT AND SCALING As for this purpose of study, the questionnaires will be divided into Part 1 (A) and Part 11 (B). In Part II (B) it consists of 4 sub elements (B, C, D and E). For the Part I, nominal scale will be used as the measurement scale. Apart from that, there are questions asked in questionnaires whereby the answers are only two categories such as male or female as an answers. These type of questions known as “dichotomous” in nominal scale.Under the Part I in the questionnaires consist of demographic details of respondents such as age, gender and designation in IPK Selangor. In Part II (B, C,D and E), interval scale will be used as measurement scale because the questions in these section will use likert scale and the respondents will responds by rating their answer from 1 to 6. Table 110. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITYBasically, validity is refer to the truthfulness in the process while doing the research. It divided into external validity and internal validity. According to Burns & Grove (2005) external validity sets the extent where the outcome of the study can be generalized beyond the study sample whereas the internal validity is to ensure the clarity and neutrality of the questionnaires to make the respondent understand the. The validity test that will be used in this research is KMO measure of sampling adequacy (Kaiser, 1974). The value greater than 0.5 is the minimum value for valid sample size.Reliability determines the trustworthiness of the research based on reproducibility (Bowling, 2012). The questionnaire will be pretested to ensure reliability besides clarity. The internal consistency of the questionnaire will be re-assessed using Cronbach’s alpha as the reliability test. The acceptable value of alpha ranging from 0.7 to 0.95). Table 2 & 3 : KMO table (Kaiser, 1974) and Cronbach’s alpha (Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. 2011)11 SAMPLING Basically the sampling size is the total number of respondent being selected to answer the question. For this study the sampling method choose is purposive sampling. A purposive sample is a non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of the study. Under this method the types of heterogeneous purposive is chosen. By virtue of Krejcie & Mogran (1970) table, the total sampling size will be 210. The total of sampling size is basically derive from the 477 complaints received by the Enforcement Agency Integrity Commission in year 2017 (Figure 4). Based on Figure 4, Selangor recorded the highest number of receiving complaint from the public as regard to misconduct of enforcement agencies in Malaysia. Source : Enforcement Agency Integrity Commission (Web) as at December 2017. This statistic shown the registered complaints towards the enforcement agencies based on the stateFigure 6 Table 4Figure 7: Sampling on the Factors affecting the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct 12. DATA COLLECTION METHOD Data collection will be based on primary and secondary data. As for the primary data, the questionnaires will be distributed randomly to the 210 people in Shah Alam since IPK Selangor is situated in Shah Alam. The developing of sequence of the question will be based on the framework shown as in the Figure 5 below. The framework of this study basically reflects the aspect of concept, dimension and element. The construction of the questionnaires will start with the concept of this study. After establishing the question from the concept of the study it will later on developing the dimension in order to establish the relationship. This can be illustrated in Figure 8.As for the secondary data are gathered from findings in literature review, journals and websites.Figure 8: The Concept, Dimension and Element Framework of StudyTable 513. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Once completed with the data collection, the collection of data in questionnaires will be analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to process the result. Later on the result will be further analyze by using Hypothesis which already formulated earlier. There will be several type of analysis and test will be conducted on the converted data from questionnaires. The analysis involve are descriptive analysis, normality test, validity and reliability test. After conducted descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient will be evaluates the significant relation between dependent variable and independent variable. Besides that this method can be also be used to process the inferential analysis.A clear picture Pearson correlation coefficient is shown as in Figure 10. Pearson correlationFigure 1014. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROPOSE RESEARCH As for the significance of research, it is divided into theoretical and practical. As for the practical significance of the research it is to facilitate in understanding factors that cause the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct. Apart from that it is also to generate new information that could be utilized to improve the future research. Besides that this study will bridges the gap in reducing the number of involvement RMP officer particularly in IPK Selangor.As for the practical significance of research it is to facilitate the relevant body to strengthen their support in all aspects in formulating plans and initiatives that will help to reduce the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct. 15. CONCLUSIONTo put in a nutshell, as mention in literature review there are several factors that contribute to the involvement of RMP officer in misconduct. The factors are level of education, the quantity of work as well as the amount of earning. Thus, it is believe the information from this research may be used as basic for the Kementerian Dalam Negeri (KDN) as well as The Integrity and Compliance Department (JIPS) in RMP department or non-governmental organization to successfully eliminate or at least to reduce the number of involvement of RMP officer in misconduct.
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