1. IPv6 can make use of over 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP

1.   
ARP – Address
Resolution Protocol: The purpose of the ARP is to map an IP address
to a computer that is connected to a local network otherwise known as a LAN.
Every Computer has a physical hardware address called the Mac address, when the
mapping is done it then converts the IP address to its corresponding physical
network address. This protocol is used whenever any device attempts to communicate
with another device on a local network like an Ethernet network for an example.
Whenever a device sends a message all the other devices on the local network
segment will see the message, however the only device that will respond is the
one that has its IP address converted into the physical MAC address. In the OSI
model the ARP operates inside of the Data-Link layer also known as layer 2. In
the TCP/IP model the ARP rest in the Network access layer also known as the
link layer.

a)   
https://techterms.com/definition/arp

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b)   
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Address-Resolution-Protocol-ARP

c)   

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) explained

 

2.   
IPv6 – Internet
Protocol version 6: Also called “IPng: IP Next Generation)” it is
the Internet’s next-generation protocol. IPv6 was developed by the Internet
Engineering Task Force which is an organization whose purpose is to develop
internet technologies. The purpose of this protocol is increases the number of
IP address available. Before IPv6 the standard system was the IPv4 which assigns
each computer a 32-bit numeric address. The reason for the switch to IPv6 is
because IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses which increase the amount of IP address by
a significant amount. To put a number on it the IPv4 allows the use of 4,294,967,296
addresses while the IPv6 can make use of over
340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP addresses. In the OSI
model the IPv6 operates inside of the Network Layer also known as Layer 3. In
the TCP/IP model the IPv6 rest in the Internet Layer.

a)   
https://techterms.com/definition/ipv6

b)   
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT202236

c)   
https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/ipv6_ipv4_difference.html

 

3.   
IPSec – Internet
protocol security: The IPsec is a framework of protocols that provide security
for internet protocol. The IPsec has the option of two security services. These
services are the Authentication Header and the Encapsulating Security Payload.
The Authentication Header authenticates the sender and ensures the integrity
and data origin of data packets. The Encapsulating Security Payload provides authentication
for the sender while encrypting any piece of data that is being sent. The IPSec
also has two modes that it makes use of. These modes are the Transport Mode and
the Tunnel Mode. The Transport mode ensures a secure channel of communication
by encapsulating
the packet. The Tunnel mode takes the packet to forma secure connection between
two devices.  In the OSI model the IPSec
operates inside of the Network Layer also known as Layer 3. In the TCP/IP
model the IPv6 rest in the Internet Layer. In the TCP/IP model the IPv6 rest in
the Internet Layer.