Global warming is gradual increase in the average of degrees of the earth’s troposphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased level carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorofluorocarbons(CFC), and others pollutants exist. For example, as the development of industry releases more garbage, it pollutes the environment. As the result, the earth temperature gets 0.8°C warmer than 100 years ago and temperature will continue to increases in the future (Bradford and Pappas, 2017). Since then, people suffer more natural disasters like drought, flood, tsunami, earthquake. In addition, Nature is also subject to much damage, “Total 63,837 species which revealed 19,817 species are threatened with extinction” (Red list, 2012). Moreover, rising temperatures make a difference to marine, and expanding the desertification. This paper, based on secondary research, with the aim of raising people awareness global warming, will discuss the causes, the effect, and the solutions to this problem.
2. Discussion of finding
2.1. Some facts about global warming
At present, the Earth is becoming increasingly hot. This phenomenon changes in the planet such as environment, weather, animal, erosion and people’s life. For example, Ice in North Pole is melting, Until June 2016, ice square in there decreases 1.5 million square kilometers (from 12.7 km² to 11.1 km²). (For the first time in 100,000 years, the ice in the Arctic could melt completely, 2016). That is the main cause of the decline of the polar bear. In 36 years, this species has declined 13.4% per decade from 1979 through 2015. Future warming is projected to be highest in the Arctic, well above that of the projected global warming (Polar Bear: WWF Wildlife and Climate Change Series, 2017). In addition, 2016 year has become the hottest temperature year in the history. Many disasters occurred in 2016. Especially, a lot of droughts spread across much of southern Africa, triggering local food and water shortages that affected millions of people. Wildfires in North America burned about 8.9 million acres of western Canada and the United States, including that a particularly destructive fire in Alberta forced mass evacuation and destroyed 2,400 homes. In addition, Coral bleaching in the Great Barrier Reef can be died off by warm waters in the Pacific. (Plumber and Popovich, 2017). Therefore, Global warming affected not only people’s life but also the Earth’s environment. Since then, humans must work together to minimize damage caused by global warming.
2.2. Causes of global warming
First of all, main cause of global warming is due to an increase in greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants exist), those gases cannot get out of the atmosphere where they are concentrated on them, causing the sun to shine on the Earth, the heat trapped causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. In addition, those gases derived from a variety of reasons such as natural and human.
Activities of natural are one of the factors contributing to global warming. In fact, kind of natural phenomenon releases a huge amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For example, disasters like forest fires and volcanoes release carbon-filled smoke, the plume of ash and smoke goes out into the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is present in the atmosphere and has a strong effect on weather and climate, since water vapor is a kind of greenhouse gas, so more water vapor in the air leads to more global warming. Moreover, the dirty grime that covers city buildings traps and contains nitrous oxide(N2O), it also exhales it concentrated a large of amounts when the sun warms the dust (Sonia Madaan, 2016). It can be seen that global warming is a natural phenomenon of the Earth.
On the other hand, if natural causes to create global warming, human activities have accelerated the process of global warming. Especially, Activities such as burning fossil fuel, farming, deforestation generates large amounts of greenhouse gases. For example, Australia has the level of CO2 pollution per person is nearly double the average of other developed nations and more than four times the world average by 73% of their electricity comes from coal burning and 13% from burning gas. Besides, this country’s agriculture with livestock are grazed at a large scale contributes 16% of our total greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, Plants play an important role in regulating the climate, but up to one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions comes from deforestation and forest degradation. (Causes of global warming, 2017). According to research results, “In the period 1994-2010, total greenhouse gas emissions in Vietnam (including LULUCF) increased rapidly from 103.8 million tons of CO2, equivalent to 246.8 million tons of CO2. Equivalent, in which the energy sector grew the fastest from 25.6 million tons of CO2 equivalent to 141.1 million tons of CO2 equivalent and also the largest emitter in 2010.” (UNDP – Human Development Report, and Vietnam’s first announcement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2007/2008). Consequently, global warming is mainly caused by human impacts on the environment and nature.
2.3. Effects of global warming
At the moment, global warming is becoming more and more complex and unpredictable. The Earth’s temperature rising lead to many natural phenomena unusual. A lot of disasters occur more frequently with stronger intensity than before. For example, in 2017, Vietnam suffered 16 typhoons and 6 tropical depressions, more than in 2013 (with 13 typhoons and 6 tropical depression) (Tran Quang Hoai, 2016). Since then, humans see clearly is the change of environment, weather and influence of global warming.
Global warming affects not only human’s life but also erosion, animal’s life. Especially, ice is melting worldwide, and the Earth’s poles, where phenomena are the strongest. Moreover, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice are melting. As the result, the sea level has been rising more quickly than the last century and habitat of species of animal decline sharply. Therefore, animals such as penguins on Antarctica where their numbers have fallen from 32,000 breeding pairs to 11,000 in 30 years, and some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved to farther north or to higher, cooler areas. From the mid-1980s, with less ice on which to live and fish for food, polar bears have gotten considerably skinnier (Effects of Global Warming, 2017). Besides, if these effects continue to occur, perhaps a lot of animals and ecosystems on Earth will disappear forever.
Moreover, those disappearances cause an imbalance in the ecosystem, and it also directly affects humans. Global warming is the cause of natural disasters all the world. Especially, double disasters tsunami and earthquake in Japan in 2011 had 16,000 people have been killed, more than 2,000 missing and at least 3,200 dead in evacuation. Until now, nearly 230,000 people are still living in temporary and only 19 percent of the 30,000 public houses have been built (Thoa Pham, 2015). In addition, having a variety of strong hurricanes was created by abnormal weather condition, they cause severe damage to the human being. For instance, in 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan landed in the Philippines. Consequently, more than 16 million people were affected, 6,000 death toll, 4.1 million displaced and 2.5 million missing. Moreover, not only typhoon Haiyan brings about the damage to people that this stormy destroyed 1.2 million homes and half that was completely destroyed. The number of homes lost in the affected area is up to 90 percent (Alyssa Cogan, 2013). Since then, it is not surprising that effects of global warming have become increasingly apparent, and these effects are best manifested in natural disasters and unusual weather conditions. If human does not have a solution to this problem, they will destroy not only species of animals and ecosystem of Earth but also human’s life and civilization.
Over a relatively short period of time, global warming is having a clearer impact and it has become one of the most concerned phenomena in recent years. Because both natural and human is the factor that promotes the rapid increase of temperature in the Earth. Activities of nature as forest blazes, volcanoes, …as well as the consequences of industrial development and the activities of human life released a large of greenhouse gases. As the result, people and nature must suffer the change of environment, lead to many species of animals and plants extinct due to the disappearance of habitat, and humans suffer life and property damage. Therefore, people must take measures to minimize the effects of global warming, and a small act of each person also can change future of the world.