1. The Consortium is governed by its membership, which

1.   Matchthese web professionals with the final product they might be responsible forproducing.

A. Graphicdesigner – Photoshop Pag SketchB.  Productiondepartment – StoryboardsC.  Userexperience designer – PHP ScriptsD. Webprogrammer – HTML and CSS documents     2.   Whatdoes the W3C do?Tim Berners -Lee founded World Wide Web Consortium inthe year 1994 to develop the web and its related technologies at MassachusettsInstitute of Technology. To adopt new technology standards and ensure thecompatibility and agreement among the industry W3C was created.

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Prior to this,inconsistency between web pages and incompatible HTML versions were developedby different vendors which depreciated the performance of the web. TheConsortium is governed by its membership, which comprises about 400organizations. The list of members is available to the public. Members includeonly businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, and governmentalentities.

There is no provision for individual membership. On the whole, W3Cmonitors the web technologies. Some well known members of the organization areIBM, Sun Microsystems, Adobe, Microsoft etc. 3.   Matchthe web technology with its appropriate task: A.HTML – Identifies text as a second-level headingB.CSS – Makes all second level headings blueC.JavaScript – Creates a custom server-side web applicationD.

PHP – Defines a new markup language for sharing financial informationE.XML – Checks a form field for a valid entry 4.      Whatis the difference between frontend and backend web development?Front-end and back-end developers team up to createthe systems necessary for an application or website to function properly. Theterm “front-end” refers to the user interface, while “back-end” means theserver, application and database that work behind the scenes to deliverinformation to the user. The user enters a request from the interface and it isverified and communicated to the server, which pulls the necessary data fromthe database and sends it back to the user.

           Front-end developers design andconstruct the user experience elements on the web page or app includingbuttons, menus, pages, links, graphics and more. Front-end developers also use frameworks suchas Angular, Ember,Backbone, Foundation or React to communicate with back-end systems. Also calledclient-side development, one of the main challenges of front-end development isthe rapid pace of change in the tools, techniques and technologies used tocreate the user experience for applications and websites. The seemingly simplegoal of creating a clear, easy-to-follow user interface is difficult due to thewide variety of mobile device and computer screen resolutions and sizes.           The backend, also called the serverside, consists of the server which provides data on request, the applicationwhich channels it and the database which organizes the information.

Forexample, if you purchase a pair of shoes from a website, you are interactingwith the front end. After you select the item you want, put it in the shoppingcart and authorize the purchase, the information is kept inside the databasewhich resides on the server. There are enterprise-level databases like Oracle,Teradata, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, EnterpriseDB and SAP Sybase ASE, aswell as other popular databases including MySQL, NoSQL and PostgreSQL. A fewdays later when you check on the status of your delivery, the server pulls therelevant information, updates it with tracking data and presents it to youthrough the front end.

Back-end programmers must have experience increating applications that can find and deliver data to the front end.5.      Whatis the difference between a web-authoring program and an HTMLediting tool?Web Authoring is a process where individuals use graphicalinterface to create websites. The user creates a program that does the job byediting and write what the user sees is what they get. The user does not use HTMLCode. When the user creates the content with the software program, the programthen creates the appropriate type of HTML code for the process of making awebsite. Dreamweaver is a good example of this, as it allows us to design ourlayout, fill in our content, place images, create and test JavaScript and completehost of other stuff.

HTML editor is essentially just a plain text editorthat understands what HTML is supposed to look like and has features built into make construction of that HTML easier. HTML editing tool would be geared towards actual programmers. It’sa tool that will generally come with code correction, snippets and plugins tohelp us code properly.  A web-authoringprogram is a program which checks if the person trying to access, has the requiredpermissions or account on the web. Whereas, HTML is the structure or skeletonof the web page which allows us to edit the HTML Code.

   6.     Let’s play a round of “Identify ThatAcronym!” The following are a few basic web terms mentioned in this chapter.Answers are in Appendix A. 1.HTML ______ The markup language used to describe web content2.

W3C ______ The organization that monitors web technologies3.CERN ______ Particle physics lab where the Web was born4.CSS ______ The language used to instruct how web content looks5.HTTP ______ Protocol for transferring web documents on the Internet6.IP ______ Internet Protocol7.

URL ______ The location of a web document or resource8.NCSA ______ Home of Mosaic, the first graphical browser9.DNS ______ Matches domain names with numeric IP addresses10.FTP ______ A protocol for file transfer 7.      The”mobile web” complicates our jobs as web designers. List at least three unknownfactors you need to consider when designing and developing a site.Ideas for creating new features on a website canoriginate from anywhere.

The very first step is to identify the need for an organizationinternally to build a website and also the potential market available in theintranet. In the analysis phase of the development we need to find out if orhow the website design is going to a success. Once the analysis has beenperformed, a work plan document should be specified that contains threeparticular factors i.

e., time, task and resources. Also, we implement thewebsites with few important factors like choosing the right domain name and URL.Having a rich keyword in the URL can play a factor in ranking of websites. Theweb site layout is the second factor to be considered because too muchinformation on a single page makes the website looks cluttered. Call to actionmechanism also helps website to convert into a potential customer website.Keeping websites updated is also one of the factors that developers should takecare of.

It’s important to build a website with searchengine optimization perspective. Doing so will help direct traffic tofuture sites.  Especially in today’s environment, major searchengines have given more leverage to map listings.                                     8.      Matchthe technology or practice on the left with the problem it best addresses. 1.Progressive enhancement – Slow connection speeds Assistive reading and inputdevices 2.

Server-side detection – Determining which device is being used 3.Responsive design – A variety of screen sizes 4.WAI-ARIA – All levels of browser capabilities5.

Site performance optimization – Assistive reading and input devices 9.      Webaccessibility strategies take into account four broad categories ofdisabilities. Name at least three, and provide a measure you might take toensure content is accessible for each.             TheWeb is an increasingly important resource in many aspects of life: education,employment, government, commerce, health care, recreation, and more. It isessential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and equal opportunity to people withdisabilities. An accessible Web can also help people with disabilities moreactively participate in society.

The Web offers the possibility of unprecedented access to information andinteraction for many people with disabilities. That is, theaccessibility barriers to print, audio, and visual media can be much moreeasily overcome through Web technologies. Web Accessibility Evaluation outlinesdifferent approaches for evaluating websites for accessibility. It providegeneral procedures and tips for evaluation in different situations, fromevaluation during website development to ongoing monitoring of existing sites.Much of the focus on Web accessibility hasbeen on the responsibilities of Web developers.

However, Web software also has a vital role in Web accessibility.Software needs to help developers produce and evaluate accessible Web sites,and be usable by people with disabilities.One of the roles of the Web AccessibilityInitiative (WAI) is to develop guidelines and techniques thatdescribe accessibility solutions for Web software and Web developers. These WAIguidelines are considered the international standard for Web accessibility.Making a Web site accessible can be simple orcomplex, depending on many factors such as the type of content, the size and complexity of the site, and thedevelopment tools and environment.

Many accessibility features are easilyimplemented if they are planned from the beginning of Web site development orredesign. Fixing inaccessible Web sites can require significant effort,especially sites that were not originally “coded” properly withstandard XHTML markup, and sites with certain types of content suchas multimedia.When developing or redesigning a site,evaluating accessibility early and throughout the development process canidentify accessibility problems early when it is easier to address them. Simpletechniques such as changing settings in a browser can determine if a Web pagemeets some accessibility guidelines. A comprehensive evaluation to determine ifa site meets all accessibility guidelines is much more complex.  There are evaluation tools thathelp with evaluation.

However, no tool alone can determine if a site meetsaccessibility guidelines. Knowledgeable human evaluation is required to determine if a site isaccessible. 10.  Whenwould you use a waterfall chart?A typical waterfallchart is used to show how an initial value is increased and decreased by aseries of intermediate values, leading to a final value. Aperformance-specific waterfall chart lets us see the series of actions thatoccur between a user and server in order for that user to view a specificindividual page of the site. Each page resource from HTML to images, CSS,JavaScript, and other scripts are represented in its own line on the chart. Thewaterfall shows the moment when each resource is called from the serverstraight through to the moment when it has been downloaded and rendered in thebrowser.

If we care about how fast the pages load, then we needto have at least a basic understanding of waterfalls. That’s because waterfallcharts are a critical diagnostic tool for the web pages. Pages can be slow fora myriad of reasons, from a sluggish back end to latency to unoptimizedthird-party scripts that block the rest of the page from rendering. If the sitefeels slow, we can quickly run our own tests, generate waterfalls, and get agood idea of where the problem lies before flagging the problem.