1. Globalenergy trends; Technological progress is bringing down the cost of renewable energy,particularly solar and wind energy, and unlocking the potential forunconventional hydrocarbons. There have been large oil and gas finds insub-Saharan and other regions with no previous known reserves.
Yet manydeveloping countries, including those with ample energy resources, continue tostruggle to supply energy to meet basic needs and to fuel their growingeconomies. Energy-poor countries with abundant resources include those withlarge-scale hydropower and some geothermal energy, which are relatively lowcost renewable energy sources. While on shore wind and solar energy cost havedeclined significantly, both are still costlier than other technologies forsimilar supply characteristic. Adopted from https://www.iea.org/weo2017/Starting from 1800 we had experienced that world’s energy wasproduced from biomass e.g burning wood and other organic matter. till that timeonly 2% of enrgy produced from coal and consumed.
By 1900, coal enrgyconsumption was almost half of the total energy used worldwide. In mid-20thcentury, the energy trends had mix largely coal over took traditional biofuels and oilwas used up to around 20%. In 1960 productions of electricity from nuclearreasources was introduced. finally today’s renewable ( modern biofuels, wind,and solar) are relatively new, geothermal and marine renewable technologies arenot included because levels of production are so small.In 2008 total worldwide primary consumption was 132,000terawatt-hours (TWh), while in 2012 it increased to 158,000 TWh. Energyconsumption in the G20 countries increased by more than 5% in 2010 after slightdecline of 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first timein 30 years by 1.
1%, as a result of the financial and economic crisis which reducedworld GDP by 0.6% in 2009. Energy consumption groth remained vigorous inseveral developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%), on the other hand ,in OECD consumption was cut by 4.
7% in 2009 and was almost down to its 2000levels. In north America, Europe and CIS countries consumption shrank by 4.5%,5%, 8.5% respectively. In 2015, the world consumed 146,000 terrawaatt-hours ofprimary energy more than 25 times more than in 1800. Relationship betweenworld’s growing population and global energy demand · Aswe all aware of the fact that world’s populations is increasing rapidly, thisgrowth will underpins and expanding demands for energy supply and consumption.In the coming decades demand for affordable and reliable energy sources will besignificantly high especially in developing countries like India, Africancountries, south American countries and in the middle east. · Accordingto estimation made by the International energy Agency (IEA), the population ofthe world will grow from 7.
5 billion in 016 to 9 billion in 2040. Thisincrement in population growth will be concentrated in Africa, India, SouthEast Asia and the Middle East, as predicted Africa will double its populationand in mid-2020 India will surpass China in term of population and will becomemost populous country. · Definitivelypopulation growth means more energy demand as one can expect. · Indeveloped nations populations and energy consumption growth will remainsrelatively stagnant or decline. · Asworlds economy grow there will be desire for more energy supply, owing to factthat as countries and their populations get wealthier, their lifestyle changesand they demand more energy usage, either it is to power their industries,increase demand of automobile or make greater use of electronic stuff.· Growingurbanization presently and in preceding time will demand more energy,urbanizations rate will increase from 53% in 2013 to 63% in 2040.· Primaryenergy consumption is estimated to raise by 36% between 2013 and 2035, Non-OECDregions will contribute to this growth. Figure 1.
Worldpopulation growth, 1000–2050. Adapted from Ness (1993). Figure2. World atmospheric carbon emissions, 1751–1999. Adaptedfrom CDIAC (2001).
· The correspondence of the two growth patternsseen in Figure 1 ; Figure 2 is striking and indisputable. Together, these chartssuggest that population growth produces increased energy consumption, or thatincreased energy consumption produces population growth Figure3. World population growth, urbanization, and energy changes · Figure 3 shows us that the recent pattern of populationgrowth was accompanied by a revolution in energy, from animal to sail to fossilfuels, and by an even more radical revolution in human social organization,from rural agrarian society to urban industrial society.
Energy challenges in developing countries and fast growing economies · Themajor challenges for the developing countries and fast growing economies tomeet their energy demands to support development at an acceptable cost, andmake sure that it is used efficiently, while protecting local environment willalso be priority as well.· Itis reported that almost 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity,around 3 billion people cook with burning biomass (wood, animal dung and cropwaste) and coal. Over 4 million die annually as a result of air pollution from cooking with solid fuels.· Thesechallenges could be categorize mainly into 3 category, the energy challenge,the technology challenge and Policies and Actions.· Interms of Energy challenges we can say that Non-OECD country accounted for 52%of global primary energy consumption, · themost immediate priority of these developing countries would be to give accessto affordable, clean, safe energy forthose who currently have no access· Lackof financial resources is obstacle to access to energy for many household andgovernment in developing countries.· Interms of technology, these countries may have the potential but at the sametime lack the technological advancement (wind, solar, biomass, nucleartechnology and advance fossils fuel systems with carbon andsequestrations) to meet their energytargets efficiently.· Interms of policies and action challenges is, lack of energy efficiency, lackreform and re-direction energy subsidies for conventional fossil fuel, lackrenewable energy resource policy to integrate it in the system.
Non of thesepolicies and actions are easy implement, but should require the activeengagement of all sector of socities. Energy in international sustainabilitypolicies and agenda · UNDP setssustainable goals and targets for achieving affordable and clean energy in thecontext of increasing demand for energy in the future, UNDP aims on asector-wide transformation of energy mix in developing countries, thesecountries often faces technical, financial, informational and policies barrierto achieve sustainability in the energy sector, some key agendas by UNDP inenergy sector will be By 2030, ensure universal access to energy services, By2030, the extension of renewable energy in global energy mix, By 2030, energy efficiency rate will be double, By2030, there should be cooperation between international communities tofacilitate access to clean and research and technology.· Europehas also made policies framework for 2030 to enhance their energy sector, thesetargets and policy objective will be the period of 2020 to 2030. Europeancommission has proposed policies and targets which are, A revised EU emissionstrading scheme (ETS), Development of new indicators for energy security andcompetitiveness in the energy system across the Europe, Develop a newgovernance system based on national plans for competitive, secure, andsustainable energy. Targets for 2030will be 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels, Renewableenergy consumptions share will be 27%, energy saving will be as compared with thebusiness-as-usual scenario. · Germanyintroduced comprehensive policies and agendas for sustainable energy, nuclearpower plant is phase out from energy system and by 2022 last power plant willbe closed, in 2014, the renewable energy act (EEG) was updated which has been drivingforce behind the Energiewende, Cogeneration Act was adopted to recover theheat wasted in power generation, Efficiency and conservation are also a part ofGermany’s plan for a more efficient future, the Ecodesign Directive (ErP) wascreated for the products which are harmful for environment. 70,000 kilometersof well maintain trails for bicycle paths is there which encourage alternativemeans of transportation.
Transition from conventional to’sustainable’ energy A sustainable, low carbon energysupply is essential for achieving the goals of the Paris climate agreement andthe 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Fossil fuels still cover 80% ofworld primary energy use and this share is increased so far in this century.The share account for by nuclear also rose until recently. By contrast, hevarious other forms of energy more usually define as renewable have remainedstatic, M. Jefferson et al. 2008.
The international Energy Agency’s expectsworld annual oil usage to rise by 40% between 2006 to 2030. In the recentdecades we become aware of the fact that the energy used presently isunsustainable and both, short and long term energy security, so it is suggestedthat political and societal agenda must be establish for the transition toclean and sustainable energy. As the prices of renewable energy resources arefalling dramatically in recent years transition to such type of sustainableenergy should be accelerated by political, societal and technological measures.The universal provision of environmental friendly and competitively producedenergy and the resulting reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are main aspectsfor the transition. Researcher and scientist should brought up technologicalsolutions, political framework should be establish in light of theirtransformation as well as their effects on society and health, economy and theenvironment. Improving energy efficiency in varioussectors; Energyefficiency saves people money, but as a solution to the problem of globalwarming, may meet energy demand. Promotion of energy efficiency without curbson consumption will not tackle the problem of reducing CO2 emissions.
It isbecame faith amongst some environmentalists that improving the efficiency ofenergy use will lead to reduction in energy consumption- the so called ‘factorfour’,( H. Herring et. Al 2004). We already have the technology andstrategies to reduce our natural gas andelectricity consumption by more than 25 percent, we need policies and programto get these technology and strategies. Energy efficient transport can helpachieve multiple health and sustainable goals, shifting urban design andinfrastructure investments in to public transport can reduce the long termtrajectory of both air pollution and climate emissions by transport.
Energyefficient light appliances should be used in homes and offices and even onstreet light to save energy. Street lights should be ON for specific time, willbe closed if not necceassry. Other appliances (cooling, heating, washingappliances) used in homes and offices will be require to be energy efficient. Enormousenergy saving can result by improving the efficiency of industrial systems,however due to lack of expertise or inadequate resources many companies shyaway from these opportunities. Fortunately a number of programs and resourcesexist which can aid in the implementation of efficiency improvement strategies.Some example are useful software program for manufacturers looking to improvetheir facilities , these includes, Pumping System Assessment Tool (PSAT), theMotorMaster+ database, the AirMaster+ program etc, (K, O’Rielly, J.
Jeswiet et.Al 2014).