1. to supply energy to meet basic needs and




1.     Global
energy trends;

Technological progress is bringing down the cost of renewable energy,
particularly solar and wind energy, and unlocking the potential for
unconventional hydrocarbons. There have been large oil and gas finds in
sub-Saharan and other regions with no previous known reserves. Yet many
developing countries, including those with ample energy resources, continue to
struggle to supply energy to meet basic needs and to fuel their growing
economies. Energy-poor countries with abundant resources include those with
large-scale hydropower and some geothermal energy, which are relatively low
cost renewable energy sources. While on shore wind and solar energy cost have
declined significantly, both are still costlier than other technologies for
similar supply characteristic.

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Adopted from  https://www.iea.org/weo2017/

Starting from 1800 we had experienced that world’s energy was
produced from biomass e.g burning wood and other organic matter. till that time
only 2% of enrgy produced from coal and consumed. By 1900, coal enrgy
consumption was almost half of the total energy used worldwide. In mid-20th
century, the energy trends had mix largely  coal over took traditional biofuels and oil
was used up to around 20%. In 1960 productions of electricity from nuclear
reasources was introduced. finally today’s renewable ( modern biofuels, wind,
and solar) are relatively new, geothermal and marine renewable technologies are
not included because levels of production are so small.

In 2008 total worldwide primary consumption was 132,000
terawatt-hours (TWh), while in 2012 it increased to 158,000 TWh. Energy
consumption in the G20 countries increased by more than 5% in 2010 after slight
decline of 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time
in 30 years by 1.1%, as a result of the financial and economic crisis which reduced
world GDP by 0.6% in 2009. Energy consumption groth remained vigorous in
several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%), on the other hand ,
in OECD consumption was cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was almost down to its 2000
levels. In north America, Europe and CIS countries consumption shrank by 4.5%,
5%, 8.5% respectively. In 2015, the world consumed 146,000 terrawaatt-hours of
primary energy more than 25 times more than in 1800.











Relationship between
world’s growing population and global energy demand


we all aware of the fact that world’s populations is increasing rapidly, this
growth will underpins and expanding demands for energy supply and consumption.
In the coming decades demand for affordable and reliable energy sources will be
significantly high especially in developing countries like India, African
countries, south American countries and in the middle east.

to estimation made by the International energy Agency (IEA), the population of
the world will grow from 7.5 billion in 016 to 9 billion in 2040. This
increment in population growth will be concentrated in Africa, India, South
East Asia and the Middle East, as predicted Africa will double its population
and in mid-2020 India will surpass China in term of population and will become
most populous country.

population growth means more energy demand as one can expect.

developed nations populations and energy consumption growth will remains
relatively stagnant or decline.

worlds economy grow there will be desire for more energy supply, owing to fact
that as countries and their populations get wealthier, their lifestyle changes
and they demand more energy usage, either it is to power their industries,
increase demand of automobile or make greater use of electronic stuff.

urbanization presently and in preceding time will demand more energy,
urbanizations rate will increase from 53% in 2013 to 63% in 2040.

energy consumption is estimated to raise by 36% between 2013 and 2035, Non-OECD
regions will contribute to this growth.


Figure 1.  World
population growth, 1000–2050. Adapted from Ness (1993).



2.  World atmospheric carbon emissions, 1751–1999. Adapted
from CDIAC (2001).


The correspondence of the two growth patterns
seen in Figure 1 ;  Figure 2 is striking and indisputable. Together, these charts
suggest that population growth produces increased energy consumption, or that
increased energy consumption produces population growth


3.  World population growth, urbanization, and energy changes


Figure 3 shows us that the recent pattern of population
growth was accompanied by a revolution in energy, from animal to sail to fossil
fuels, and by an even more radical revolution in human social organization,
from rural agrarian society to urban industrial society.


Energy challenges in developing countries and fast growing economies


major challenges for the developing countries and fast growing economies to
meet their energy demands to support development at an acceptable cost, and
make sure that it is used efficiently, while protecting local environment will
also be priority as well.

is reported that almost 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity,
around 3 billion people cook with burning biomass (wood, animal dung and crop
waste) and coal. Over 4 million die annually 
as a result of air pollution from cooking with solid fuels.

challenges could be categorize mainly into 3 category, the energy challenge,
the technology challenge and Policies and Actions.

terms of Energy challenges we can say that Non-OECD country accounted for 52%
of global primary energy consumption,

most immediate priority of these developing countries would be to give access
to affordable, clean, safe energy  for
those who currently have no access

of financial resources is obstacle to access to energy for many household and
government in developing countries.

terms of technology, these countries may have the potential but at the same
time lack the technological advancement (wind, solar, biomass, nuclear
technology and advance fossils fuel systems with carbon and
sequestrations)  to meet their energy
targets efficiently.

terms of policies and action challenges is, lack of energy efficiency, lack
reform and re-direction energy subsidies for conventional fossil fuel, lack
renewable energy resource policy to integrate it in the system. Non of these
policies and actions are easy implement, but should require the active
engagement of all sector of socities.


  Energy in international sustainability
policies and agenda 


UNDP sets
sustainable goals and targets for achieving affordable and clean energy in the
context of increasing demand for energy in the future, UNDP aims on a
sector-wide transformation of energy mix in developing countries, these
countries often faces technical, financial, informational and policies barrier
to achieve sustainability in the energy sector, some key agendas by UNDP in
energy sector will be By 2030, ensure universal access to energy services, By
2030, the extension of renewable energy 
in global energy mix, By 2030, energy efficiency rate will be double, By
2030, there should be cooperation between international communities to
facilitate access to clean and research and technology.

has also made policies framework for 2030 to enhance their energy sector, these
targets and policy objective will be the period of 2020 to 2030. European
commission has proposed policies and targets which are, A revised EU emissions
trading scheme (ETS), Development of new indicators for energy security and
competitiveness in the energy system across the Europe, Develop a new
governance system based on national plans for competitive, secure, and
sustainable energy.  Targets for 2030
will be 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels, Renewable
energy consumptions share will be 27%, energy saving will be as compared with the
business-as-usual scenario.

introduced comprehensive policies and agendas for sustainable energy, nuclear
power plant is phase out from energy system and by 2022 last power plant will
be closed, in 2014, the renewable energy act (EEG) was updated which has been driving
force behind the Energiewende, Cogeneration Act was adopted to recover the
heat wasted in power generation, Efficiency and conservation are also a part of
Germany’s plan for a more efficient future, the Ecodesign Directive (ErP) was
created for the products which are harmful for environment. 70,000 kilometers
of well maintain trails for bicycle paths is there which encourage alternative
means of transportation.


Transition from conventional to
‘sustainable’ energy


A sustainable, low carbon energy
supply is essential for achieving the goals of the Paris climate agreement and
the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Fossil fuels still cover 80% of
world primary energy use and this share is increased so far in this century.
The share account for by nuclear also rose until recently. By contrast, he
various other forms of energy more usually define as renewable have remained
static, M. Jefferson et al. 2008. The international Energy Agency’s expects
world annual oil usage to rise by 40% between 2006 to 2030. In the recent
decades we become aware of the fact that the energy used presently is
unsustainable and both, short and long term energy security, so it is suggested
that political and societal agenda must be establish for the transition to
clean and sustainable energy. As the prices of renewable energy resources are
falling dramatically in recent years transition to such type of sustainable
energy should be accelerated by political, societal and technological measures.
The universal provision of environmental friendly and competitively produced
energy and the resulting reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are main aspects
for the transition. Researcher and scientist should brought up technological
solutions, political framework should be establish in light of their
transformation as well as their effects on society and health, economy and the



 Improving energy efficiency in various


efficiency saves people money, but as a solution to the problem of global
warming, may meet energy demand. Promotion of energy efficiency without curbs
on consumption will not tackle the problem of reducing CO2 emissions. It is
became faith amongst some environmentalists that improving the efficiency of
energy use will lead to reduction in energy consumption- the so called ‘factor
four’,( H. Herring et. Al 2004). We already have the technology and
strategies  to reduce our natural gas and
electricity consumption by more than 25 percent, we need policies and program
to get these technology and strategies. Energy efficient transport can help
achieve multiple health and sustainable goals, shifting urban design and
infrastructure investments in to public transport can reduce the long term
trajectory of both air pollution and climate emissions by transport. Energy
efficient light appliances should be used in homes and offices and even on
street light to save energy. Street lights should be ON for specific time, will
be closed if not necceassry. Other appliances (cooling, heating, washing
appliances) used in homes and offices will be require to be energy efficient. Enormous
energy saving can result by improving the efficiency of industrial systems,
however due to lack of expertise or inadequate resources many companies shy
away from these opportunities. Fortunately a number of programs and resources
exist which can aid in the implementation of efficiency improvement strategies.
Some example are useful software program for manufacturers looking to improve
their facilities , these includes, Pumping System Assessment Tool (PSAT), the
MotorMaster+ database, the AirMaster+ program etc, (K, O’Rielly, J. Jeswiet et.
Al 2014).