India is one of the most
populous countries with a population of about 121 million (Census, 2011). There
is a considerable improvement in economic as well as social fronts in the
recent years. It can be seen by the improvements in various indicators of
mortality and morbidity such as infant mortality ratio (IMR), maternal
mortality ratio (MMR), and life expectancy. However, improvement in nutritional
status of females and children is found to be lagged behind. Also, the country
is facing the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in
which the role of nutrition is very important. There are a lot of studies on
under-nutrition in India for children, but over-nutrition in children and
factors associated with it are currently ignored. Due to progressive urbanization
and changing life style, childhood over-weight and obesity has become an
equally challenging. It is a fast
emerging problem for which national representative data is scarce. Not
only are obese children at an increased risk of developing serious medical and
psychological complications, they are also likely to stay obese into
adolescence and adulthood (Gibson et.al). Moreover, if begun in childhood,
obesity in adulthood is likely to be more severe. Also effective
preventive of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhood
obesity. WHO has also emphasized on urgent need of understanding the prevalence
trend, factors contributing and developing strategies for effective
intervention. Obesity is one of the preventable risk factors for various non-communicable
diseases but studies of obesity for children are very rare. With these
backgrounds in mind, the current paper will be an attempt to highlight the
problem of obesity and over-weight by showing its prevalence, trends, patterns
and its association with various factors. Also the association of mother’s
weight with nutritional status of child will be checked.

The role of
adipose tissue in normal individual is both mechanical and metabolic.
It  play an important
role in providing insulation and mechanical support. Additionally, adipose
tissues have traditionally been defined as the major sites for storage of
surplus fuel. During times of increased food intake and/or decreased energy
expenditure, surplus energy is efficiently deposited in adipose tissue in the
form of neutral triglycerides and when food is scarce and/or energy expenditure
requirements increase, lipid reserves are released to provide fuel for energy
generation These process are mediated by lipogenic and lipase enzymes
respectively. The white adipocyte of a healthy individual is the major source
of energy during starvation and increased energy demands. Under such situation,
triglycerides are broken down of by lipase enzyme into glycerol and fatty
acids,which can then be transported via circulation to the liver, muscle, and
BAT. In these organs the FFAs are used in fatty acid oxidation, thus generates
energy in the form of ATPs. There is also evidence that glycerol and FFA can be
re esterified in adipocytes, thereby allowing FFA flux to be acutely regulated.
Therefore, the principal functions of WAT are to store excess energy as
triglycerides, in large unilocular droplets, and to release it in the form of
FFA. This energy balance process is well regulated. Indeed, at the molecular
and biochemical levels, adipocytes are well equipped with the machinery to
respond to both hormonal (e.g., insulin) and sympathetic (e.g., adrenergic)
stimulation. In contrast, BAT stores triglycerides in multilocular adipocytes
as quick-access fuel for heat production through mitochondrial
“uncoupling” of oxidative phosphorylation of FFA. This thermogenic
process is vital in neonates exposed to the cold but may no longer be required
and appears to be lost in adult humans, who have developed additional
strategies to keep warm. 3