4.2 that is why understanding how to define success

4.2 Discussion of the findings

Every project is
set up with a target to achieve its success, that is why understanding how to
define success and what factors contribute to achieving it is an important question
to understand before starting a project (Joslin, 2015). Together with, without
clear define the term project success, it does not reach up to marked and often
in the eye of the beholder (Judgev & Muller, 2005).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

to the APM (2006), there are many techniques to create successful projects and
most of them are generic. All of those techniques and investigations aimed to
find a way of making a successful project. Even with a concerted effort is to define
and measure the project success (Bloch et al., 2012;
GAO (Government Accountability Office), 2013;
The Standish Group, 2010).

project success measure by triple concept: iron triangle (time cost and
quality) (Atkinson, 1999; Packendorff, 1995), to some extent that success
factors incorporates with scope (Adnan
et al., 2013; Berssaneti and Carvalho, 2015), stockholder interest (Harding, 2012), manager,
top management, project management (Rockart, 1979), ill define technology, risk
management (Harding, 2012) and so on.

Nowadays, it is going to multidimensional concept
that include short-term success factors: efficiency and long-term achievement
of desired results: effectiveness and impact (Shenhar, et al., 1997, Judgev, et al.,
2001). Shenhar and Dvir (2007) and Carvalho and Rabechini Junior (2015) notify efficiency
(connected to the iron triangle), effectiveness, impact on society, needs and
priorities in society, and sustainability factors. Among them, Carvalho and
Rabechini Junior (2015) explain the sustainability is the impact of the project
on social and environmental aspects, which is more relevant with the current
triple bottom line theory (Carvalho and Rabechini, 2011; Singh et al., 2012;
Silvius et al., 2013).

Many literatures show that project
methodologies directly contribute to success goals (Cooke-Davies, 2002; Fortune
and White, 2006; White and Fortune, 2002) or to the perceived appropriateness
of project management or positive to project success (Lehtonen and Martinsuo,
2006, Joslin and Muller, 2015). Besides, sometimes unrealistic expectations, methodologies
limitations or ill-selection methodology do not back the success result (White
and Fortune, 2002; Lehtonen and Martinsuo, 2005). Thus, the Standish Group,
2010 states that methodologies and its element(s) impact on project success
investigation have been demand (Cooke-Davies and Arzymanow, 2003; Milosevic and
Patanakul, 2005).

Project Methodology and its
elements’ positive relationship on project success:

In the project
management field, different literature reveals that project methodologies seen
as a collection of elements directly contribute to the goals (Fortune &
White, 2006) or to the perceived checks and balances of project management
(Lehtonen & Martinsuo, 2006). Methodology elements are the foundation
elements of project success factors and Joslin and Muller (2015) define the success
factor variable is in a description of that methodology element.

Joslin and Muller
also show that every methodological element give the heterogenous impact
pictures on project success at a time meaning, some of the methodology elements
may have a greater impact on project success than others. However, there collected
data show the highest references support to the positive relationship between project
methodology and project success (Joslin and Muller, 2015). There findings proved
project methodology does an highest significant impact on project characteristics
as time, cost, and scope (see the Table-….). Joslin, 2014 discover a result
that project methodology and project success are all socially constructed
phenomena; therefore, the effect of a PMM on project success is investigated by
the author to provide conditional knowledge that can be used to understand when
and how to improve a PMM’s positive impact on project success especially under
the influences of different project governance contexts.

Morris and Pinto express
this with another research paper that move on update project management needs of
the companies to reflects much more in a complex reality, where interpretive
views of the reason for change are more appropriate (Morris and Pinto, 2004).
The international standard methodologies, such as PMBOK Guide, PMI’s or OGC (Of?ce
of Government’s Commerce, UK) PRINCE 2, are updated year to year and include
extensions for government, construction and others vital industries (Joslin and
Muller, 2015).

How effective project management
methodology-PRINCE 2 on project success:

PRINCE 2 (Projects IN a Controlled Environments) is
a structured project management approach, based on thousands of projects and
project sponsors, project managers, project teams, academics, trainers
experience. It contains all the basic concepts and processes of project management, planning, delegating,
monitoring and control of all aspects of the project life cycles to achieve the
project objectives within the expected performance targets for time, cost,
quality, scope, benefits and risks (OGC, 2009).

Additionally, PRINCE 2 is easy-clipped and flexible management framework for
different kinds of projects (Lianying,
Jing and Xinxing, 2012) given business change by implementing a secure,
consistent, well-proven approach to project management is a valuable business

PRINCE 2-methodology starts as “a system
of practices, techniques, and procedures, and rules” (Project Management
Institute, 2013), boost the project effectiveness and increase chances of
success (Vaskimo, 2011). Therefore, it elements as processes, tools,
techniques, knowledge areas, and comprehensive capability profiles were
developed to assist the managers in achieving more success rate. Thus, the UK
government widely considered as the leading method in every project management
(OGC, 2009) also in construction project has complex in nature.

Standardized, customized and
the comprehensiveness methodology context lead to the higher chance of project
success (Joslin and Muller, 2015). In contrast, Shenhar et al.’s mantra Wysocki
(2011) states “one size fits all” does not suitable in every project management
to achieve success. Supporting this limitation, PRINCE 2 described as “a method
that supports some aspects of project management” (TSO, 2009) and it offers the
better answer to overcoming problems faced by projects and project particular
contexts (PRINCE2; OGC, 2009). Furthermore, Russo, and Stolterman proposed a
solution that customized tailor procedures is to the most successful project
management methodology (2002) and PRINCE 2 give the same facilities (OGC,

Aubry et al. (2010) found that Project Management
Organization’s experienced is agile related project methodology allow
flexibility in the processes and organization. Project management methodology
requirements are varied according to their size (Turner et al., 2010). However,
the idea of standardizing and/or customizing a methodology is underlying the
methodology become comprehensive to manage the project to higher levels of
success means project methodology have to supplement for effective use by the
project manager (Joslin and Muller 2015).

Wells (2012), set a research to test the
role and contribution of project methodology on its success and detail
comparative analysis of PRINCE 2, Agile with others three method is given in
the report (see brief in Figure…. Table. .. and ….).

The Author concluded that PRINCE 2 is a useful to some
extent where they replace and compensate for the absence of tacit knowledge in
a project, helping managers with less experience and knowledge of project
management, together with this methodology helps to minimises the misalignment
exists between the perceived value of methodologies across different groups and
between the project and the strategic/organizational levels. Most project
managers perceived the prime purpose of project management methodologies to be
management, control, and compliance rather than support and guidance (Wells,

Construction project success
factors and its position with PRINCE 2 methodology impacts:

Quite a lot of literatures
mention several key areas in different terms to assurance the construction project
success such as budget, time schedule, quality standards and goals, breakdown
structure and milestones, unique conception and planning, resource management, project
manager expertise and experience, well communication way, team member
involvement, adaptability and motivation system (Doloi and Lim, 2007), health
and safety (Chan and Chan, 2004), loss control (Ramirez et al., 2004), risk
management, environmental protection, IT system management, globalization issue
(CII, 2011), client relationships (Caru, et al., 2004) and so on. Basically, a
more rigorous standard planning and communication system is needed to
construction industry success (Chau et al., 2003).

Following the Ribeiro,
et al., (2013) data analysis and responses (Figure….), the authors selected eight factors
considering the average of the interviews answers with consideration of the
economic point of views which have the most influence to assess the success of
a construction project. In graph, “complete the project within the budget”
factor is the highest weighting (78.0%). The author discusses the point as it is
not surprising since construction work is greatly influenced by unexpected
external factors (like the weather), which often involve an increase the costs
of the projects. “Finishing on schedule” is secondly important (75.0%), because
of an overrun in schedule often means an increase in costs.

A vital tendency is trying to meet customer
expectation of good service is also shown. “Complete the project according to
the requirements” arises in third place (65.0%). The lowest are “keep the team
motivated”, “optimize the use of available resources” and “provide products
with superior technology” with markings of less than 30.0%. Analyzed the
results, the highest traditional ones: budget, and schedule are the top of the
list. The quality requirements accomplishment and customer satisfaction are the
second top. In other words, project management success is increasingly related
with customer satisfaction (Ribeiro,
et al., 2013).

Similarly, as like
other challenging sector, the
success of construction industry and its management measure are now more
complex due to several stockholder involvements (Yang, 2011) and
multi-disciplinary collaboration (Singh et al., 2011) becoming it larger in
size day-by-day (Chau, 2004).

Project/stakeholders’ interest and
it’s important:

In order to deliver the project on time and within the
budget, project manager usually assess project/stakeholders’ interest. It is extremely
important, because of careful and detail plans of the project (Kaysi, 2013).

Evaluation of the mega project as a success or
failure, one may have to find out very seriously and carefully that ‘who are
stakeholders? And what do they expect from the project? Because of every large project
is very subjective and cannot be generalized over the other projects. Those
also have own unique perspective and structure (Kaysi, 2013).

According to the PRINCE 2 principle of defined
roles and responsibilities, a PRINCE 2 project always has to define three
primary stakeholders and their interest (business, user and supplier) and if
the project is to be successful, it must be satisfied all three stockholders. Furthermore,
“For completeness of the project PRINCE 2 recommends that the business, user
and supplier interests need to be prioritised all the time” (OGC, 2009, pp.
31-32). Such as, the International Olympic Committee have the interest to show
a peaceful Olympic game, that is why, authority identified stakeholders with a
list of influence; anticipate the kind of influence, positive or negative. The
authority also developed strategies to get the most effective support possible to
project and reduce any obstacles and keep peaceful game environment (Yang,

4.2.1: Three primary project interests (Adapted from OGC, 2009, p.32)

Olympic: a mega-project management:

London Olympic Games Park was the most ambitious mega
construction projects are stand-in as a showcase of a transition to green sustainable
technology, where every unique project operates by going outside of normal
rules (Fainstein 2008; Faulconbridge 2013). These mega projects are controlled
under the PRINCE2 management methodology, to ensure a set of targets
of environmental issues implementation (Dodd and Yu, 2009, ODA, 2012). Therefore,
the success story of sustainable construction in London Olympic 2012 demands a
critical study to future learning legacy.

London Olympic 2012 and PRINCE 2 methodology:  

International Olympic Committee (IOC) adopted the concept of royal legacy and
sustainability that became an important motto for the London Olympic a history
of sustainable games implements and undertake social, economic and environmental
measures (Triple-Bottom Line Dilemma-TBL) (Kaysi, 2013). Safe Climate
management, healthy living style, regeneration of East London site,
biodiversity, and inclusion, encouraging the city people to think and support
the idea of sustainable life were the themes of this sustainable game parks.

In the Olympic
games history, London 2012 was a big challenge to use its scope, level of
change and the mega games venues had to deal with sustainability legacy
(Silvius, et al., 2012, Kaysi, 2013). Besides, McNeil and Simon Dresner argued
that the idea of “sustainable development” is challenging work for uncertain
future (Kaysi, 2013). Similarly, Tomi Kallio, Piia Nordgerg and Ari Ahonen
explained that it was clear that sustainable development was powerful and a vital
notion; because of its ambiguity, and no influence and impact to change.

London 2012, some author believes that sustainable Olympic games are also a
vague idea. “As it tries to satisfy the games’ insatiable drive for faster,
higher and stronger (growth) while delivering equality, solidarity and
accountability across all sports and groups around the world” (Girginov, 2010,
pp.430, 431). Additional strong argument, Silvius (2012) mention that projects
and sustainable development are maybe not “natural friends” and project
management is not capable to achieve the sustainability concept (Eid, 2009).

the London Olympic 2012 construction projects are passing behind of all
criticism and believed, it has
gained valuable experience and confidence in delivering sustainable projects
and Olympic Delivery Authority’s approach to innovation and sustainable
development has influenced long term change in the industry (CPA, 2012, ODA,
2012 and DEFRA, 2013).

This experience is the guide pulls with
the key lessons on procuring sustainable buildings, infrastructure and
transport. Also, may be importance of protecting the natural capital for future
generations as well as the social and economic capital in the form of a capable
and skilled workforce and small business and entrepreneurship where ensure the
legacy continues (DEFRA, 2013).

For achieve the sustainable target,
authority was encapsulated in the London 2012 Sustainability Policy and the
Sustainability Plan, which provided the overarching sustainability framework
for London 2012. Together with, the ODA published its Sustainable Development
Strategy mentioned 12 objective areas as like carbon, water and waste; social
issues like noise, communities, transport and mobility; and economic factors
like employment and business.

The Olympic Authority set a
specific mission: “to deliver
venues, facilities and infrastructure on time, fit for purpose and in a way,
that maximizes the delivery of a sustainable legacy within the available
budget. Cost, time, safety, equality and inclusion, environment, quality,
functionality and legacy were the headlines. From the beginning, the protection
of the health and safety of everyone involved was paramount” (Tuchman,

According to DEFRA guide, the
Sustainable Development Strategy was ‘projected to act as a catalyst for
industry to deliver an improvement in the economic, social and environmental
sustainability of development across the UK’. The target of the authority was get
lessons from London 2012 to be spread far and wide. Also, most important
lessons of the Learning Legacy for the authority are ‘many environmental
sustainability benefits go hand in hand with cost savings’ and ‘using the right
approach to projects through innovation in design and materials specification areas’
(DEFRA, 2013).

the other side, as like most of the other project management methodology, PRINCE2
offer no special attention to address the issue of sustainability (OGC, 2009
and Martens and Carvalho, 2016). But, the ‘Lessons learned’ report
regarding London Olympic 2012 listed
out 7 broader line notable sustainability achievements: 1) <50% materials delivered by rail or water way, 2) installed first large scale wastewater recycling scheme in the UK, 3) significant number system established to reduced less water consumption, 4) energy saving plant and system used, 5) low carbon materials used for 42% reduction in carbon emissions, 6) <£1milion waste avoided through sustainable design, procurement and construction processes and <90% of construction waste diverted from landfill. 7) 100% legal and sustainable timber used (CPA, 2012, p.9, ODA, 2012 and DEFRA, 2013). However, 7 principles, themes, process, and tailoring to the project environment are the key aspect of PRINCE 2 to achieve historical success (OGC, 2009). Tuchman (2012) tries to find out the hidden secrete of London Olympic 2012 sustainable construction works. The PRINCE 2, management in control environment was a "triumph" choice to legacy and sustainable Olympic presented before the world (Dodd and Yu, 2009 and ODA, 2012). According to PRINCE 2, manage by stage and mange by exception principles, the ODA's set up the mission maintain six variable of project performance, "to deliver venues, facilities and infrastructure on time, fit for purpose and in a way, that maximizes the delivery of a sustainable legacy within the available budget. Cost, time, safety, equality and inclusion, environment, quality, functionality and legacy were the headlines. From the beginning, the protection of the health and safety of everyone involved was paramount (Tuchman, 2012)''. Complex Project management expertise, Alistair G. Gibb said, involvement of senior management and Safety Health Environment Leadership team, or SHEL were another reason to deliver the mission (Tuchman, 2012). Those team were organised following by PRINCE 2's principle: define roles and responsibilities with stakeholder interests' management (OGC, 2009). Collected lessons learned from previous megaprojects, such as the Channel Tunnel and Heathrow Terminal Five with risk identification and prevention management were another factor for success. According to the OGC, (2009, pp152), PRINCE 2 recommends that ''seek lessons from similar previous projects, corporate or programme management, and external organizations related to configuration management. 'Like the athletes, workers were led in stretching and flexing exercises before starting their day' is one more example of lesson learned from other country (Tuchman, 2012). In PRINCE 2, some of these may already have been captured in the Lessons Log. Additionally, review the Risk Register and Daily Log for risks and issues configuration management'' (OGC, 2009). Gibb cites that 12 different languages people work on the construction sites. 'Putting things in pictures' means following the PRINCE 2, common language is one more factor was recognized to success (Tuchman, 2012). Tuchman's Gibb cited some factors such as overall competence, client commitment, management listening to workers, health and safety forums, project planning with a three-month look-ahead schedule and analysis of statistics for lessons learned and communication contributed to project success (2012).  Wells (2012) noted that 'PRINCE 2 provide the principles and procedures for performing project management, where project management is a critical value-adding process that improves the probability of project success'. Additionally, it reduced risk of project failure, increased efficiency and productivity, improved quality, and improved communication (www.IIL.com,). According to Brooks and Rich, 2016, main principale of london Olympic sustainability development was the use of sustainably procured building materials and technologies, that was 'ethical' or 'environmentally friendly' to sustainable construction. The authors noted that sustainable construction is complicated by the multiple state and public stakeholders involved in projects such as large stations and skyscrapers, the different perspectives of architects, developers, procurement specialists, end users and others. Where diverse actors and activities are involved and sustainable procurement is a vital process or 'responsible sourceing' of building materials and technologies use as a challenging issues. Cost, existing procurement methods and short term planning were cited by the authors as a risks are frequently described as barriers to the sustainable procurement of materials, while some contractors are sceptical of the improvements that can be delivered through sustainable procurement (Brooks and Rich, 2016). In Prince 2, Tailoring principle to different aspect such as risk, share, product description etc., it will clearly defined and insured. Achieving excelence in construction it provide a set of 11 guides and two high-level guides, which build on recent experience, supports future strategy and aligns with the OGC Gateway Review process (OGC, 2009). London olympic project management also making a different, trust, respect, empowering all parties to work to the best, motivating to achieve more than they think they can, supply chan best aligement, transperancy, shared commitment and thinking ahead. Finally, 'they were good people with good processes' is pointed out by Gibb (Tuchman, 2012). These historic experiences are the guide pulls with the key lessons on PRINCE 2 methodology use, project success, procuring sustainable buildings, infrastructure and transport. Also, may be importance of protecting the public money, jointly natural capital for future generations as well as the social and economic capital in the form of a capable and skilled workforce and small business and entrepreneurship where ensure the legacy continues (DEFRA, 2013).