4.2 Discussion of the findingsEvery project isset up with a target to achieve its success, that is why understanding how todefine success and what factors contribute to achieving it is an important questionto understand before starting a project (Joslin, 2015).
Together with, withoutclear define the term project success, it does not reach up to marked and oftenin the eye of the beholder (Judgev & Muller, 2005). Accordingto the APM (2006), there are many techniques to create successful projects andmost of them are generic. All of those techniques and investigations aimed tofind a way of making a successful project. Even with a concerted effort is to defineand measure the project success (Bloch et al., 2012;GAO (Government Accountability Office), 2013;The Standish Group, 2010).Initiallyproject success measure by triple concept: iron triangle (time cost andquality) (Atkinson, 1999; Packendorff, 1995), to some extent that successfactors incorporates with scope (Adnanet al.
, 2013; Berssaneti and Carvalho, 2015), stockholder interest (Harding, 2012), manager,top management, project management (Rockart, 1979), ill define technology, riskmanagement (Harding, 2012) and so on. Nowadays, it is going to multidimensional conceptthat include short-term success factors: efficiency and long-term achievementof desired results: effectiveness and impact (Shenhar, et al., 1997, Judgev, et al.,2001).
Shenhar and Dvir (2007) and Carvalho and Rabechini Junior (2015) notify efficiency(connected to the iron triangle), effectiveness, impact on society, needs andpriorities in society, and sustainability factors. Among them, Carvalho andRabechini Junior (2015) explain the sustainability is the impact of the projecton social and environmental aspects, which is more relevant with the currenttriple bottom line theory (Carvalho and Rabechini, 2011; Singh et al., 2012;Silvius et al., 2013). Many literatures show that projectmethodologies directly contribute to success goals (Cooke-Davies, 2002; Fortuneand White, 2006; White and Fortune, 2002) or to the perceived appropriatenessof project management or positive to project success (Lehtonen and Martinsuo,2006, Joslin and Muller, 2015).
Besides, sometimes unrealistic expectations, methodologieslimitations or ill-selection methodology do not back the success result (Whiteand Fortune, 2002; Lehtonen and Martinsuo, 2005). Thus, the Standish Group,2010 states that methodologies and its element(s) impact on project successinvestigation have been demand (Cooke-Davies and Arzymanow, 2003; Milosevic andPatanakul, 2005).Project Methodology and itselements’ positive relationship on project success: In the projectmanagement field, different literature reveals that project methodologies seenas a collection of elements directly contribute to the goals (Fortune , 2006) or to the perceived checks and balances of project management(Lehtonen & Martinsuo, 2006).
Methodology elements are the foundationelements of project success factors and Joslin and Muller (2015) define the successfactor variable is in a description of that methodology element. Joslin and Mulleralso show that every methodological element give the heterogenous impactpictures on project success at a time meaning, some of the methodology elementsmay have a greater impact on project success than others. However, there collecteddata show the highest references support to the positive relationship between projectmethodology and project success (Joslin and Muller, 2015). There findings provedproject methodology does an highest significant impact on project characteristicsas time, cost, and scope (see the Table-….
). Joslin, 2014 discover a resultthat project methodology and project success are all socially constructedphenomena; therefore, the effect of a PMM on project success is investigated bythe author to provide conditional knowledge that can be used to understand whenand how to improve a PMM’s positive impact on project success especially underthe influences of different project governance contexts. Morris and Pinto expressthis with another research paper that move on update project management needs ofthe companies to reflects much more in a complex reality, where interpretiveviews of the reason for change are more appropriate (Morris and Pinto, 2004).The international standard methodologies, such as PMBOK Guide, PMI’s or OGC (Of?ceof Government’s Commerce, UK) PRINCE 2, are updated year to year and includeextensions for government, construction and others vital industries (Joslin andMuller, 2015).How effective project managementmethodology-PRINCE 2 on project success:PRINCE 2 (Projects IN a Controlled Environments) isa structured project management approach, based on thousands of projects andproject sponsors, project managers, project teams, academics, trainersexperience. It contains all the basic concepts and processes of project management, planning, delegating,monitoring and control of all aspects of the project life cycles to achieve theproject objectives within the expected performance targets for time, cost,quality, scope, benefits and risks (OGC, 2009).
Additionally, PRINCE 2 is easy-clipped and flexible management framework fordifferent kinds of projects (Lianying,Jing and Xinxing, 2012) given business change by implementing a secure,consistent, well-proven approach to project management is a valuable businessinvestment. PRINCE 2-methodology starts as “a systemof practices, techniques, and procedures, and rules” (Project ManagementInstitute, 2013), boost the project effectiveness and increase chances ofsuccess (Vaskimo, 2011). Therefore, it elements as processes, tools,techniques, knowledge areas, and comprehensive capability profiles weredeveloped to assist the managers in achieving more success rate.
Thus, the UKgovernment widely considered as the leading method in every project management(OGC, 2009) also in construction project has complex in nature. Standardized, customized andthe comprehensiveness methodology context lead to the higher chance of projectsuccess (Joslin and Muller, 2015). In contrast, Shenhar et al.’s mantra Wysocki(2011) states “one size fits all” does not suitable in every project managementto achieve success. Supporting this limitation, PRINCE 2 described as “a methodthat supports some aspects of project management” (TSO, 2009) and it offers thebetter answer to overcoming problems faced by projects and project particularcontexts (PRINCE2; OGC, 2009). Furthermore, Russo, and Stolterman proposed asolution that customized tailor procedures is to the most successful projectmanagement methodology (2002) and PRINCE 2 give the same facilities (OGC,2009). Aubry et al.
(2010) found that Project ManagementOrganization’s experienced is agile related project methodology allowflexibility in the processes and organization. Project management methodologyrequirements are varied according to their size (Turner et al., 2010). However,the idea of standardizing and/or customizing a methodology is underlying themethodology become comprehensive to manage the project to higher levels ofsuccess means project methodology have to supplement for effective use by theproject manager (Joslin and Muller 2015).
Wells (2012), set a research to test therole and contribution of project methodology on its success and detailcomparative analysis of PRINCE 2, Agile with others three method is given inthe report (see brief in Figure…. Table. .. and ….). The Author concluded that PRINCE 2 is a useful to someextent where they replace and compensate for the absence of tacit knowledge ina project, helping managers with less experience and knowledge of projectmanagement, together with this methodology helps to minimises the misalignmentexists between the perceived value of methodologies across different groups andbetween the project and the strategic/organizational levels.
Most projectmanagers perceived the prime purpose of project management methodologies to bemanagement, control, and compliance rather than support and guidance (Wells,2012).Construction project successfactors and its position with PRINCE 2 methodology impacts:Quite a lot of literaturesmention several key areas in different terms to assurance the construction projectsuccess such as budget, time schedule, quality standards and goals, breakdownstructure and milestones, unique conception and planning, resource management, projectmanager expertise and experience, well communication way, team memberinvolvement, adaptability and motivation system (Doloi and Lim, 2007), healthand safety (Chan and Chan, 2004), loss control (Ramirez et al., 2004), riskmanagement, environmental protection, IT system management, globalization issue(CII, 2011), client relationships (Caru, et al., 2004) and so on.
Basically, amore rigorous standard planning and communication system is needed toconstruction industry success (Chau et al., 2003). Following the Ribeiro,et al., (2013) data analysis and responses (Figure….), the authors selected eight factorsconsidering the average of the interviews answers with consideration of theeconomic point of views which have the most influence to assess the success ofa construction project. In graph, “complete the project within the budget”factor is the highest weighting (78.0%). The author discusses the point as it isnot surprising since construction work is greatly influenced by unexpectedexternal factors (like the weather), which often involve an increase the costsof the projects.
“Finishing on schedule” is secondly important (75.0%), becauseof an overrun in schedule often means an increase in costs. A vital tendency is trying to meet customerexpectation of good service is also shown. “Complete the project according tothe requirements” arises in third place (65.0%). The lowest are “keep the teammotivated”, “optimize the use of available resources” and “provide productswith superior technology” with markings of less than 30.0%.
Analyzed theresults, the highest traditional ones: budget, and schedule are the top of thelist. The quality requirements accomplishment and customer satisfaction are thesecond top. In other words, project management success is increasingly relatedwith customer satisfaction (Ribeiro,et al.
, 2013). Similarly, as likeother challenging sector, thesuccess of construction industry and its management measure are now morecomplex due to several stockholder involvements (Yang, 2011) andmulti-disciplinary collaboration (Singh et al., 2011) becoming it larger insize day-by-day (Chau, 2004).
Project/stakeholders’ interest andit’s important:In order to deliver the project on time and within thebudget, project manager usually assess project/stakeholders’ interest. It is extremelyimportant, because of careful and detail plans of the project (Kaysi, 2013).Evaluation of the mega project as a success orfailure, one may have to find out very seriously and carefully that ‘who arestakeholders? And what do they expect from the project? Because of every large projectis very subjective and cannot be generalized over the other projects. Thosealso have own unique perspective and structure (Kaysi, 2013). According to the PRINCE 2 principle of definedroles and responsibilities, a PRINCE 2 project always has to define threeprimary stakeholders and their interest (business, user and supplier) and ifthe project is to be successful, it must be satisfied all three stockholders. Furthermore,”For completeness of the project PRINCE 2 recommends that the business, userand supplier interests need to be prioritised all the time” (OGC, 2009, pp.31-32).
Such as, the International Olympic Committee have the interest to showa peaceful Olympic game, that is why, authority identified stakeholders with alist of influence; anticipate the kind of influence, positive or negative. Theauthority also developed strategies to get the most effective support possible toproject and reduce any obstacles and keep peaceful game environment (Yang,2013). Figure4.2.1: Three primary project interests (Adapted from OGC, 2009, p.
32)LondonOlympic: a mega-project management:London Olympic Games Park was the most ambitious megaconstruction projects are stand-in as a showcase of a transition to green sustainabletechnology, where every unique project operates by going outside of normalrules (Fainstein 2008; Faulconbridge 2013). These mega projects are controlledunder the PRINCE2 management methodology, to ensure a set of targetsof environmental issues implementation (Dodd and Yu, 2009, ODA, 2012). Therefore,the success story of sustainable construction in London Olympic 2012 demands acritical study to future learning legacy.SustainableLondon Olympic 2012 and PRINCE 2 methodology: TheInternational Olympic Committee (IOC) adopted the concept of royal legacy andsustainability that became an important motto for the London Olympic a historyof sustainable games implements and undertake social, economic and environmentalmeasures (Triple-Bottom Line Dilemma-TBL) (Kaysi, 2013). Safe Climatemanagement, healthy living style, regeneration of East London site,biodiversity, and inclusion, encouraging the city people to think and supportthe idea of sustainable life were the themes of this sustainable game parks.
In the Olympicgames history, London 2012 was a big challenge to use its scope, level ofchange and the mega games venues had to deal with sustainability legacy(Silvius, et al., 2012, Kaysi, 2013). Besides, McNeil and Simon Dresner arguedthat the idea of “sustainable development” is challenging work for uncertainfuture (Kaysi, 2013).
Similarly, Tomi Kallio, Piia Nordgerg and Ari Ahonenexplained that it was clear that sustainable development was powerful and a vitalnotion; because of its ambiguity, and no influence and impact to change. Before,London 2012, some author believes that sustainable Olympic games are also avague idea. “As it tries to satisfy the games’ insatiable drive for faster,higher and stronger (growth) while delivering equality, solidarity andaccountability across all sports and groups around the world” (Girginov, 2010,pp.430, 431). Additional strong argument, Silvius (2012) mention that projectsand sustainable development are maybe not “natural friends” and projectmanagement is not capable to achieve the sustainability concept (Eid, 2009).However,the London Olympic 2012 construction projects are passing behind of allcriticism and believed, it hasgained valuable experience and confidence in delivering sustainable projectsand Olympic Delivery Authority’s approach to innovation and sustainabledevelopment has influenced long term change in the industry (CPA, 2012, ODA,2012 and DEFRA, 2013).
This experience is the guide pulls withthe key lessons on procuring sustainable buildings, infrastructure andtransport. Also, may be importance of protecting the natural capital for futuregenerations as well as the social and economic capital in the form of a capableand skilled workforce and small business and entrepreneurship where ensure thelegacy continues (DEFRA, 2013). For achieve the sustainable target,authority was encapsulated in the London 2012 Sustainability Policy and theSustainability Plan, which provided the overarching sustainability frameworkfor London 2012. Together with, the ODA published its Sustainable DevelopmentStrategy mentioned 12 objective areas as like carbon, water and waste; socialissues like noise, communities, transport and mobility; and economic factorslike employment and business. The Olympic Authority set aspecific mission: “to delivervenues, facilities and infrastructure on time, fit for purpose and in a way,that maximizes the delivery of a sustainable legacy within the availablebudget. Cost, time, safety, equality and inclusion, environment, quality,functionality and legacy were the headlines. From the beginning, the protectionof the health and safety of everyone involved was paramount” (Tuchman,2012).
According to DEFRA guide, theSustainable Development Strategy was ‘projected to act as a catalyst forindustry to deliver an improvement in the economic, social and environmentalsustainability of development across the UK’. The target of the authority was getlessons from London 2012 to be spread far and wide. Also, most importantlessons of the Learning Legacy for the authority are ‘many environmentalsustainability benefits go hand in hand with cost savings’ and ‘using the rightapproach to projects through innovation in design and materials specification areas'(DEFRA, 2013).Onthe other side, as like most of the other project management methodology, PRINCE2offer no special attention to address the issue of sustainability (OGC, 2009and Martens and Carvalho, 2016).
But, the ‘Lessons learned’ reportregarding London Olympic 2012 listedout 7 broader line notable sustainability achievements: 1) <50% materialsdelivered by rail or water way, 2) installed first large scale wastewaterrecycling scheme in the UK, 3) significant number system established to reducedless water consumption, 4) energy saving plant and system used, 5) low carbonmaterials used for 42% reduction in carbon emissions, 6) <£1milion wasteavoided through sustainable design, procurement and construction processes and <90%of construction waste diverted from landfill. 7) 100% legal and sustainabletimber used (CPA, 2012, p.9, ODA, 2012 and DEFRA, 2013). However, 7 principles,themes, process, and tailoring to the project environment are the key aspect ofPRINCE 2 to achieve historical success (OGC, 2009).
Tuchman (2012) tries to find outthe hidden secrete of London Olympic 2012 sustainable construction works. ThePRINCE 2, management in control environment was a “triumph”choice to legacy and sustainable Olympic presented before the world (Dodd and Yu, 2009 and ODA, 2012). According to PRINCE 2, manage bystage and mange by exception principles, the ODA’s set up the mission maintainsix variable of project performance, “to delivervenues, facilities and infrastructure on time, fit for purpose and in a way,that maximizes the delivery of a sustainable legacy within the availablebudget. Cost, time, safety, equality and inclusion, environment, quality,functionality and legacy were the headlines. From the beginning, the protectionof the health and safety of everyone involved was paramount (Tuchman, 2012)”. Complex Project management expertise, Alistair G. Gibb said,involvement of senior management and Safety Health Environment Leadership team,or SHEL were another reason to deliver the mission (Tuchman, 2012).
Those teamwere organised following by PRINCE 2’s principle: define roles andresponsibilities with stakeholder interests’ management (OGC, 2009). Collected lessons learned from previous megaprojects, such asthe Channel Tunnel and Heathrow Terminal Five with risk identification andprevention management were another factor for success. According to the OGC,(2009, pp152), PRINCE 2 recommends that ”seek lessons from similarprevious projects, corporate or programme management, and externalorganizations related to configuration management.
‘Like the athletes, workers were led in stretching andflexing exercises before starting their day’ is one more example of lessonlearned from other country (Tuchman, 2012). In PRINCE 2, some of thesemay already have been captured in the Lessons Log. Additionally, review theRisk Register and Daily Log for risks and issues configuration management”(OGC, 2009). Gibb cites that 12 different languages people work on the construction sites.’Putting things in pictures’ means following the PRINCE 2, common language isone more factor was recognized to success (Tuchman, 2012). Tuchman’sGibb cited some factors such as overall competence,client commitment, management listening to workers, health and safety forums,project planning with a three-month look-ahead schedule and analysis ofstatistics for lessons learned and communication contributed to project success(2012).
Wells (2012) noted that ‘PRINCE 2 provide the principles and procedures for performingproject management, where project management is a critical value-adding processthat improves the probability of project success’. Additionally, it reducedrisk of project failure, increased efficiency and productivity, improvedquality, and improved communication (www.IIL.com,).According to Brooks and Rich, 2016, main principale of londonOlympic sustainability development was the use of sustainably procured buildingmaterials and technologies, that was ‘ethical’ or ‘environmentally friendly’ tosustainable construction.
The authors noted that sustainable construction iscomplicated by the multiple state and public stakeholders involved in projectssuch as large stations and skyscrapers, the different perspectives ofarchitects, developers, procurement specialists, end users and others. Wherediverse actors and activities are involved and sustainable procurement is avital process or ‘responsible sourceing’ of building materials and technologiesuse as a challenging issues.Cost, existing procurement methods and short term planningwere cited by the authors as a risks are frequently described as barriers tothe sustainable procurement of materials, while some contractors are scepticalof the improvements that can be delivered through sustainable procurement(Brooks and Rich, 2016). In Prince 2, Tailoring principle to different aspectsuch as risk, share, product description etc., it will clearly defined andinsured.
Achieving excelence in construction it provide a set of 11 guides andtwo high-level guides, which build on recent experience, supports futurestrategy and aligns with the OGC Gateway Review process (OGC, 2009).London olympic project management also making a different,trust, respect, empowering all parties to work to the best, motivating toachieve more than they think they can, supply chan best aligement,transperancy, shared commitment and thinking ahead. Finally, ‘they were good people with good processes’ is pointed out by Gibb(Tuchman, 2012). These historic experiences are the guidepulls with the key lessons on PRINCE 2 methodology use, project success, procuringsustainable buildings, infrastructure and transport.
Also, may be importance ofprotecting the public money, jointly natural capital for future generations aswell as the social and economic capital in the form of a capable and skilledworkforce and small business and entrepreneurship where ensure the legacycontinues (DEFRA, 2013).