Food practice is
uniquely important for Ethiopian people. Many dishes are eaten with injera, bread made from teff (grain).

The flat injera is
used as a plate for stews and the stews are typical of Ethiopia’s distinctive cooking, made with different type of meats (beef, goat)
vegetables (beans, lentils or chickpeas) these stews are sometimes spiced
using berbere, made with chilies.

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Food intolerance in Ethiopia includes, orthodox Christians, Jaws, and Muslims
do not eat pork as it forbidden by religious beliefs. Infant feeding is low in Ethiopia, as a result a lot of infants’ death due to poor
breastfeeding practices.

Rare earth ions doped glasses are very interesting for solid state laser materials. The determines the optical properties of rare earth ions by the 4f electron shell, it is almost insensitive to the surrounding atom of the host environment because of transmission by 5s and 5p electron shells.

The famous one of among rare earth ions is the Dy3+
ion is suitable candidate for analyzing the energy-efficient luminescent
materials 1, 2. Dysprosium rare earth
atoms, Dy which have an active unfilled f shells in its electronic
configuration (Xe 4f104s2), can provide
1.3 ?m emission due to the 6F11/2, 6H9/2?6H15/2
transition 3. In
addition, Dy has a good absorption band at approximately 800 nm, at which level
a cheap commercial laser diode could be used for excitation.

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On other hand, the structure of amorphous selenium was
assumed to contain a random mix of selenium chains (Sen) and 8-ring
structures (Se8) distributed randomly throughout the solid.  The filled lone pair (LP) p of
Selenium states forms the bonding (s) band while the empty anti-bonding p states
form anti-bonding (s*) band. The valence band of Se is formed from the lone
pair p electrons and the valence s states of Se lie far below the
top of the valence band 4. During crystallization, the
chains of Sen and Se8 rings transforms into hexagonal and
monoclinic structure in sequence.

The recent Achievements in the growth of chalcogenides doped rare earth ions (RE) studied in last years for active applications of photonic devices such as fiber amplifiers,  biosensors, optoelectronic chips, 3D optical recording, luminescent labels, white light up-conversion emission, color display and the near and mid-IR 5-9, The low phonon energy (<500 cm-1) and high refractive indices of chalcogenides glasses hosts bring about high quantum efficiencies for rare earth ions transitions and larger oscillator strengths of RE dopants 10,11.