ABNORMAL It is a repeated ,relativelyinvariate sequence of movements

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR -STEREOTYPIESv Inorder to recognize that behaviour is abnormal , the person observing must befamiliar with the normal behaviour of that species.v Adifficulty arises if many of the animals kept show the same kind of abnormal behaviour,may be taken as normalbehaviour.eg:bar biting in sows.

v Inorder to obtain knowledge of the behavioural repertoire of animals andestablish what is normality it is necessary to study the animals in arelatively complex environment where they have the opportunity to show the fullrange of their behaviour,it would not be the wild environment  but it should provide all the components thatare important for the animal.v Anextensive knowledge of the biology of animals and a detailed ecological investigation are therefore needed todecide what behaviour is abnormal.v Abnormal behaviour is behaviour thatdiffers in pattern, frequency or context from that which is shown by mostmembers  of a species in conditions thatallow a full range of behaviour.

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ABNORMALBEHAVIOURS1.Stereotypies2.Self directedand Environment directed3.Addressed toanother individual4.Failure offunction5.

AnamalousreactivitySTEREOTYPIES It is a repeated,relativelyinvariate sequence  ofmovements which has no obvious purpose.Behaviouralrepertoires of animals  such aswalking,flapping flight  would not becalled stereotypies  rather it shouldhave some apparent lack of function. By the timestereotypy is established no simple function is served.

Physiology ofstereotypy:ü Theperformance of stereotyped behaviour depends on brain dopamine systems andopiate peptides in the brain.ü Naloxone,which blocks the  mu receptor opiatesites for opioids such as beta endorphin,when administered cease thestereotypic behaviour.ü Sowsthat showed much stereotypy had lower mu and kappa receptorsand lower dopaminein the frontal cortex,while horses shoeing more stereotypies had more dopaminereceptors in the nucleus.ü Stereotypiesoccur in situations  where the individuallacks control of its environment.Possiblecauses :Ø Frustrationabout food inadequacyØ Barrenenvironment,housing in individual stables ü Occurrence of stereotypies can bealleviated or eradicated by appropriate environmental enrichment.1.    Pacing or route tracing2.

    Circling and tail chasing.3.    Rocking ,swaying and weaving4.

    Rubbinginvolve other parts of  the                                                    5.    Pawing and stall kickingbody6.    Head shaking and head nodding7.

    Wind sucking8.    Eye rolling 9.    Sham chewing10.                       Tongue rolling involve 11.

                       Licking or crib whetting oral part12.                       Bar biting ,tether biting or crib biting13.                       Drinker pressing  1.PACINGOR ROUTE TRACING The repeated action patterns during pacing orroute tracing are those used in walking or other locomotion,but the animal follows a path that reurns to itsorigin and which is often repeated with only minor modifications.Examples1.Route tracingof zoo animals in cages 2.

Horses underconditions of minimal exercise in chronic confinement3.Hens beforeoviposition  if no nest material isavailable.  Causes:1.Frustrationdue to confinement,absence of social partner,absence of food.Remedy :Providingcomfortable environment by eliminating thwarting circumstances.2.

CIRCLINGOR TAIL CHASINGAnimals  turn in tight circles and try to catch theirown tails.Causes:NeurologicaldisorderDermatologicalproblemEnvironmental  inadequacyFrustrationExample :  Tail chasing in dogs.Remedy:Treatment if itis neurological or dermatological disorder,Remove the frustratingsituation.3)ROCKING, SWAYING AND WEAVING:The animalremains in one place,but the  body ismoved forwards and backwards  from sideto side, with or without head swinging.Examples:Monkeys incaptivityHorses andcattle when tethered show rocky behaviour.Weaving in racehorses,resulting in weight loss.

Causes: No companies,deprived of mother.No variety inthe environmentRemedy:Tying the horsewith cross chains to limit the lateral movement of the head.Turning out topasture ,Enforced exercise4)RUBBING: Some part of the body is moved against  solid object and the movement  is repeated so many times ,sometimes toalleviate local irritation.Causes:Closeconfinement, chronic restrictionExamples :Horned cattlerubbing against wall.Head rubbing inpigsHorses rubbinghindquarters.5)PAWING  AND STALL KICKINGPawing is anormal behaviour of four legged animals,it becomes  abnormal when performed with vigour in a persistent stereotyped fashion.Causes :Frustration indogsConfinementAttentionseeking  in horses in case of stallkickingRemedy:Putting inpastureHanging  mats or barriers 6)HEADSHAKING OR HEAD NODDINGHead is movedvertically,laterally with a rotatory movement of neck.Examples :Head shaking indomestic fowl.

Head nodding inhorsesCauses:Close presenceof observer in caged birdsNoxious gas inpoultry house.Confinement Remedy:Comfortable environment7)WINDSUCKINGMovements  during which air is sucked in and expelled. Common in horsesRemedy:Use of windsucker strap fastened tightly around the throat,with a heart shaped piece ofthick leather held between the angles of the jaws with the pointed endprotruding towards a pharyngeal area,  which causes discomfort to the horses.Creation offistulae on each side of the mouth between the buccal cavity and outer cheek.

8).EYEROLLING :The eyes aremoved around in the orbit at a time when no visible object is present.Young calvesconfined in crates sometimes stand immobile for extended periods and eye rolling is repeated.9).SHAM CHEWING Moving  jaws when the animal has no food in its mouthin monogastric animals.Common insows  when tethered in stalls singlycauses frothing and foaming of saliva.

Remedy :Providing strawor fibrous material to chew and root.Group housing.   10).TONGUEROLLING:The tongue isextruded from the mouth and moved by curling and uncurling outside or inside  the mouth with no solid matter present.

Common in Cattleand calves immediately before and after feeding.In horses it is called astongue drawing Remedy :Wind suckingtrapsInsertion ofmetal ring at the frenulum lingueProvision ofsalt licks11).LICKINGAND CRIB WHETTINGTongue isapplied  repeatedly to an areas ofanimal’s own body or some objects in the surroundings.Remedy :Good supply offeedFree environment12)BAR BITING ,TETHER BITING OR CRIB BITINGThe animal opensand closes its mouth around a bar and performs chewing movement.Pregnant sowswhich are more restricted show this behaviour.

Crate in front and sides aremade of metal piping or tethers that restrict the movement of the sowBar-biting iscommon in cattle. Crib –biting is common in horsesRemedy:Providing strawand increasing the food, comfortable environment13)DRINKER PRESSING Pressing automated drinker repeatedly withoutingesting water.Common inpregnant sows when provided with a nipple drinker.REFERENCE:FRASER AF& BROOM DM.1999.FARM ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE