ABSTR ACTMedicinal Plants have been a significant source promotingAnti-Diuresis.
In this review, plant extracts of different parts of the plantshave been evaluated for their anti-diuretic property. As herbs are less toxiccompared to the synthetic drugs, they were focused in this study. Plants still represent alarge untouched source of structurally novel compounds which might serve as atemplate for the development of a novel drug. Thedata supporting the anti-diuretic effects of some of the well-known medicinalplants are existing. This article reviews the various medicinal plantsused traditionally as anti-diuretics and their efficacy and optimum dosage onanimal models.
This Review may actas a crucial milestone for the researchers in the preference of medicinal plantfor carrying their work on anti-diuretics.Key words –anti diuretic, anti-diuresis, Medicinal PlantsAKSHAY SHINDEa*aDepartment of Biological Science, Birla Institute ofTechnology- KK Birla Goa Campus, India*CorrespondingAuthorEmail: [email protected] INTRODUCTIONFor decades together, research on traditionalplants have been predominant in India as they are promising in curing plethoraof diseases and have insignificant sideeffects compared to the other synthetic drugs in the market. An antidiuretic isa compound or drug, when administered to an organism, helps in controlling body water balance byreducing urination and opposing diuresis.Worldwide trend in the utilization of plant withmedicinal properties has created a tremendous need for information about theproperties and uses of these plant. TheIndian Traditional Medicine like Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani are based on theuse of plant materials. Herbal drugs have gained importance and popularity inrecent years because of their efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness 1.
An antidiuretic is a substance that helps the body retainwater. By preventing the kidneys andbladder from discarging water from thebody too quickly. Antidiuretic medicines are used in treating bed-wetting, incontinence and similarconditions. Some herbs have natural antidiuretic properties2 Plantsrepresent still a large untapped source of structurally novel compounds thatmight serve as lead for the development of novel drug 3 Currently,only five drugs are available as antidiuretics: vasopressin or ADH and itsanalogue lypressin or desmopressin, thiazide related diuretic chlortalidone,sulphonylureal hypoglycaemic agent chlorpropamide and antiepilepticcarbamazepine of which only the first two are specific 4. It is indeed crucial that efforts shouldbe made to introduce new medicinal plants to develop effective and cheaperdrugs5. TRADITIONALPLANTS EXERTING ANTI-DIURETIC PROPERTYVernoniacinereaVernonia cinerea commonlyknown sahadevi in hindi. It is agenus of about 1000 species of herbs and shrubs in the family Asteraceae. Having small shrub growing found all over india in the temperature climate growing till the heightof 3 feet.
It is also seen to have therapeutic effects against certaingastrointestinal and skin disorders and also some immunomodulatory effects. Theroots and leaves of this plant is also known to cure fever, hiccups, kidneydisease and stomach discomfort 6. The plant is used to treat nerve disordersand is also a potent analgesic 7The plant has antimicrobial,antitumour,antibacterial, antihelmintic,, antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic effects..
It has tremendous medicinal properties8Powdered leaf was successively and exhaustively extracted with solvents ofincreasing polarity using, methanol and water. These extracts were investigatedfor anti- diuretic activity in rats using standard method. 9Antidiuretic activity of the extracts, VCML(methanol extract) and VCALE (aqueous extract) the antidiuretic responses ofthe extracts, VCMLE and VCALE were highly significant in comparison with thecontrol animals.
Methanol and aqueous extracts are an effective antidiuretic,which supports the claim that the plant can be used to cure urinaryincontinence. While the chloroform extract of the leaf induced significantdiuresis BrassicaoleraceaBrassica oleracea. Commonly known Broccoliis an edible green plant belongs to the family Brassicaceae. Broccoli is a fastgrowing annual plant that grows 60-90 cm tall they are rich in vitamin C,dietary fiber and also contain isothiocyanate, glucoraphin, sulforaphane,selenium.They possess several anti-cancer properties. Theseanti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for thetreatment of various diseases and disorders. 10 Broccoli is one amongthe few vegetables that claims to possess ant diabetic potency10 Sulforaphaneprevents neurodegeneration and thereby has its effect on Alzheimer’s diseaseand Parkinson’s disease.
Other characteristics include inflammation, neuronalloss and oxidative stress 11. In Bangladesh, aside from B. oleacea’sused in diarrhoeal treatment (Khan MS, 1975 & Uddin SN et al.
, 2004).Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate anti diuretic activityof B. oleracea’s polar (ethanolic) andnon-polar (carbon tetrachloride) extract was evaluated on swiss albino mice.The leaves ofBrassica oleraceae were dried and wassuccessively and exhaustively extracted with both polar and non polar solvent.
Both, polar andnon-polar fraction showed anti diuretic properties on both male white rabbitsand male Sprague-Dawley rats. 12 pandanusfascicularis lam.Pandanusfascicularis Lam (syn. P.
odorattisimus) commonly referred as screw pines arepalm-evergreen trees or shrubs belong to the genus Individual plants can reach a height of 20meters supported by aerial roots. Patients and medical practitioners deemed the root and rhizome tobe effective against diabetes 13,14. The extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularisproduce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting thetraditional application of this herb in treating various diseases associatedwith inflammation and pain.15 Prop roots ofP. fascicularis both ethanol and aquoues extract were prepared ethanol extract by percolation and cold maturation, respectively . diuresis was induced bya diuretic agent called as furosemide.
Vasopressin(ADH) was considered as a standard. The resultsdemonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly reduced the total urine output. Nonetheless ,antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH the treated animals significantly (p <0.001) decreased the urinary output and electrolytic excretion of Na+ and K+,without significant renal excretion of Cl– when compared to control. Aqueousextract treated animals significantly (p < 0.
05) decreased the urinaryoutput and electrolytic excretion of Na+ and K+ without significant renalexcretion of Cl– when compared to control. The antidiuretic responses of theboth extracts were highly significant in comparison with the control animals The extracts caused a significant decrease innatriuresis and kaliuresis16 ALPINIAOXYPHYLLA FRUIT. ALPINIA OXYPHYLLA FRUIT.
Is a plant it is perennial itgrows in tropical climate grows upto 3 m best used for diarrhea origin in asia growsin asia and australia AOF seed partand the shell part (Sesquiterpenes-Rich Extraction, SREAO) and the shell(Diphenylheptanes-Rich Extraction, DREAO) were extracted by methanol as solvent.The data obtained after the oral administration of SREAO and DREAO significantdecreasing in urinary excretion was observedFor thediuretic activity of DREAO, it did not present an obvious effect on the urinevolume and electrolyte excretion. This indicated that the SREAO fraction wasthe active ingredient of Alpinia oxyphylla anti-diuretic activity.. And thephytochemical study of SREAO revealed that the sesquiterpenes were the maincompounds. So the sesquiterpene compounds contributed to the anti-diureticactive of Alpinia oxyphylla 18Aporusalindleyana Wight Aporusa lindleyana Wight belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. It is the sixth largestfamily among flowering plants.
The genus Euphorbia of this family, aloneaccount for one sixth of the whole group of flowering plants, with about 1000species documented.19 Many of these species have been the subject of chemicaland pharmacological investigation. Other Euphorbia species were reported to havereported to have antibacterial activity.20-22 The plant is used as a traditional medicinefor heeling skin diseases. Three doses of differentconcentration of the methanol extract ofAporusa lindleyana (Leaf and bark in 5:1 ratio) were orally administered to therats. Furosemide, vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) and distilled water wereused as diuretic reference, antidiuretic reference and control, respectively.Urine output was recorded up to 6 h at hourly intervals. To investigate themode of action, pH, specific gravity, conductivity, total dissolve solids, Na+, K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+, leucocytes, nitrite, urobilinogen, protein, blood, ketones,bilirubin and glucose were tested in the urine of 500 mg/kg treated and controlrats.
Six hours later, serum electrolyte levels (Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+) wereevaluated. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was also determined in terms ofcreatinine clearance. Overt toxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and aphytochemical studies were conducted.
Results: Significant (p < 0.05)reduction of urine output (by 45 %) and aldosterone secretion index (Na+ /K+ )were observed while sodium (by 38 %) and potassium (by 114 %) levels wereincreased significantly (p < 0.05). GFR was not changed significantly (p >0.
05). Further, the methanol extract (leaf/bark in 5:1 ratio) was non-toxic interms of overt signs of toxicity, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) andaspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea and creatinine levels. Phytochemicalevaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, unsaturated sterols, unsaturatedterpenes, unsaturated lactones, lucocyanins, tannins and polyphenols andcyanogenic glycosides. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Aporusa lindleyanahas moderate and safe oral antidiuretic activity.23Ficus racemosa Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) is an evergreen, moderate to large-sizedspreading, lactiferous, deciduous tree 15-18 m high, without prominent aerialroots. Also Antidiabetic potential of various parts thisplant has been evaluated in alloxan and streptozotocin-induced diabeticrats and rabbits24 Antibacterial potential of F.
racemosa againstdifferent bacterial strains. Stem bark ethanol extract was found to be veryeffective against Alcaligenes faecalis Bacillus cereus Proteusmirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa, , Staphylococcus aureus, , , and Salmonellatyphimurium bacterial strains, indicating the scope to discoverbioactive natural products that may act as template in development of newpharmaceuticals in order to address unmet therapeutic needs25Antidiureticpotential of D of the bark of F. racemosa was evaluated in rats using three doses (250, 500 or 1000mg/kg) and was orally administered . ADH was used as reference Drug. It was demonstratedthat both the low and high-doses of D and ADH significantly reduced the totalurine output. The D-induced antidiuresis had a rapid onset within an hour,peaked at 3 h and lasted throughout the study period (5 h).
Antidiureticpotential of D when compared to standard ADH was about 50% lower . The D causeda reduction in urinary Na+ level and Na+/K+ ratio, and an increase in urinaryosmolarity indicating multiple mechanisms of action. The results providescientific support for its claimed antidiuretic action and deserve intensivescrutiny26 CONCLUSION ANDFUTURE ASPECTS This review is intendedto provide an overview of the existing knowledge about the use of someherbal medicinal plants as Anti-diuretics. Herbal medicines arewidely used in India and as well as other countries because of there higherefficacy and less cost. The review has also included Ethnobotnay of theevaluated medicnal plants which gives an insight of traditional usage ofplants.
Herbal medicines are in great demand inthe developed as well as in the developing countries for primary health care becauseof their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins andlesser costs. The review has included the botanical characteristics of theplant which helps in identification of the plant, Ethnobotany which givetraditional use of the plant, and the reported activities of the plant. However, the number of studies carried out, further studiesto be conducted to confirm reported activities.
Such evidence is needed toprovide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines andeven be helpful in the development of future medicines and treatments andtreatment guidelines. By this review, it can be concluded that in themidst of nature there are numerous plants which possess potent Anti- diuretic activity. Herbal medicationsare free from side effects and toxicity unlike the allopathic medicines. Thecurrent review projected to provide an overview of knowledge adjoining theherbal medicines used as diuretics.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe author is grateful to theauthors/editors of all those articles and journals from where the data for thisarticle has been reviewed and discussed and also a special Thanks to Dr. B K Manjunathand Divakara Ramachandrappa for the constant guidance andsupport