AbstractIn this review, comparison of dynamic stretching and static stretching in jumping and speed performances was made using 7 journals. 5 out of the 7 journals reviewed showed that dynamic stretching improved jumping and speed performances when being compared with static stretching. Besides that, 1 of the journal showed that static stretching has no impact on jumping performance while another one showed that static stretching reduced jumping performance. The requirements of flexibility and mobility for each sport differs from one another, so it is important that coaches and athletes should take into consideration the requirements based on their respective sports before choosing their stretching protocol for their training programme. Introduction Physical activity is any body movements that work the muscle groups that require energy expenditure. It is no secret that physical activity helps improve overall health and fitness and reduces risk for many chronic diseases.
Physical activity can be as simple as a simple walk in the park, daily house chores, and sports and leisure activities. The difference that separates them is the intensity level of each activity’s nature. Stretching as define by Dictionary.
com is to extend one’s limb or body in a reclining position or to reach out to extend in length. There are many different ways to perform a stretching exercise, but they can be generally be grouped into two categories: static stretching or dynamic stretching. A static stretching involves the muscle being stretched to a point where a slight discomfort but not pain is felt. The stretch position is then being held with no movement for a period of time.
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends holding the stretch 15 to 30 seconds and performing it three to five times. When done correctly, static stretches are relatively safe and helps to improve flexibility. An example of a static stretch is the seated hamstring stretch. On the other hand, dynamic stretching refers to stretching exercises that are performed with movements.
Instead of holding the stretch for a period of time, the joints and muscles are repeatedly moved through a full range of motion. Dynamic stretches help to improve flexibility and reduce risk of injury. The movements are controlled in deliberate and are meant to mimic the movements of the joints and muscles while going through a specific sport or activity. Examples of dynamic stretches are walking lunges, high knee marching and arm circles.
Results In this assignment, a review on the topic dynamic stretching and static stretching in jumping and speed performances was conducted. A total of 7 journals were used for this review article. There are 3 out of 7 journals that compared both dynamic stretching and static stretching on jumping and speed performances, 3 journals that conducted only static stretching protocol in the test, and 1 journal on dynamic stretching on performances. Discussion The purpose of this article review is to determine the effects of different static and dynamic stretch protocols on in jumping and speed performances. From the table shown above, 5 out of the 7 journals reviewed showed that dynamic stretching improved jumping and speed performances when being compared with static stretching. Besides that, 1 of the journal showed that static stretching has no impact on jumping performance.
These results are consistent with Bishop’s review indicating that a dynamic warm up is likely to significantly improve short-term performance on a range of tasks as long as fatigue is not induced and static stretching warm up exercises have been shown to decrease or shown not much improvement in jumping and speed performances. Bishop cited several reasons why dynamic stretching might improve short term performances. Most factors are related to temperature and include decreased stiffness of the muscles and joints; increased transmission rate of nerve impulses; changes in the force velocity relationship; and increased glycogenolysis , glycolysis ,and high-energy phosphate degradation.
In addition to these temperature-related changes, 2 neuromuscular phenomena possibly activated by the dynamic warm up could potentially enhance power and agility performance by producing better force production which leads to a faster acceleration and speed. Post activation potentiation (PAP; an increase in muscle twitch force and rate of force development following a conditioning contractile activity) could theoretically improve jump and speed performance. In another study conducted by Amiri-Khorasani et al., where dynamic stretching and static stretching methods were tested on the acceleration and speed in soccer players, results showed that there were significant differences in terms of acceleration and speed after performing dynamic stretching as compared to those that performed static stretching as warm up.
It was concluded that dynamic stretching was more effective for performance as the players were able to produce more force for a faster execution. Static stretching seemed to be at the disadvantage spectrum by decreasing jumping and sprint performances. Researchers have come up with at least 2 theories why pre-exercise stretching might decrease subsequent performance relative to a more dynamic warm up. First, several researchers have cited reduced neural activation as a means by which repeated stretches reduce the number of motor units available for contraction .If the static stretching reduced neural activation relative to the dynamic warm up, performance of power and agility tasks, such as those used in this study, might be diminished. In addition, other investigators have suggested that increased compliance (i.
e., the length change that occurs when a force is applied) in the tendon results in a brief moment when muscle force is taking up slack within the tendon, rather than contributing to gross movement. Potentially, such an effect could hinder jump and speed performances. However, there is a way to counter that problem. Rosenbaum et al.
found that decreased force and rate of force development related to stretching was returned to normal after 10 minutes of running .This suggests that pre-exercise stretching may not hinder power performance if followed by dynamic movements that mimic the tasks that follow.Conclusion Preparation for performances such as jumping and speed should involve long and short-term training programs. Majority of the research showed that dynamic stretching protocol conferred a modest performance enhancement for jump and speed as compare to the static-stretching warm up. However, static stretching does have its important role when it comes to flexibility. Gleim et al., in a review of the literature on flexibility and sports performance, noted the sport-specific nature of flexibility, suggesting that flexibility training might enhance performance in sports that rely on extremes of motion for movement.
Flexibility and mobility are without a doubt among the paramount requirements of lots of sports. The requirements of each sport differs from one another, so it is important that coaches and athletes should take into consideration the flexibility and mobility requirements before choosing their stretching protocol for their training programs or before a game as the correct stretching protocol not only improves sport performances, but it also helps to reduce risk of injury.