ABSTRACT grown. Polyhouses are often used for growing flowers,

ABSTRACT

A Polyhouse is a
building where plants are grown. Polyhouses are often used for growing flowers,
vegetables and fruits plant. Basic factors affecting plant growth are humidity,
water content in soil, temperature, etc. These physical elements are hard to
control manually within a Polyhouse and a need for automated prototype arises.
Polyhouse automatic control is imperative for the plants to provide them with
proper nutrients in the controlled manner. To monitor the greenhouse
environment parameters effectively, it is necessary to plan a control system.
It communicates with the a variety of sensor modules in order to maintain  the temperature, humidity and soil moisture
efficiently inside a greenhouse by operating a cooler, fogger, dripper and
lights according to the necessary condition of the crops. Many different
techniques have been proposed and implemented for this purpose. This paper
mainly reviews different  present
Greenhouse Monitoring and control systems.

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KEYWORDS: Polyhouse,
Temperature Sensor, Humidity Sensor, Soil moisture Sensor, Light Sensor.

 

INTRODUCTION

 In this modern era of industrialization,
agriculture plays a notable role on the overall socio-economic development of
India. The backbone of Indian Economy is Agriculture.43% of India’ s territory
comes under agricultural lands. Crop growth is mainly influenced by the
surrounding environmental climatic variables, the amount of water supplied and
the fertilizers used for irrigation. By regular monitoring of the soil
conditions and environmental conditions the quality of agriculture can be
increased. Polyhouse is ideal for proper plant growth and high yield of the crop,
where the climatic ingredients can be controlled automatically. Polyhouse
cultivation is the modern, intensive and is considered highly productive and
environment friendly agriculture practice. Polyhouses are constructed by
assigning an ultraviolet plastic sheet of thickness 1501m which lasts for a
minimum of 5 years. It is constructed  using bamboos or iron pipes. In general the
length of polyhouses is 25-30 feet and width of 4-5 feet. The size of the
polyhouse may vary according to the requirement. Irrespective of the season the
temperature and humidity levels can be automatically controlled in the
polyhouse thus resulting in proper plant growth and high yield of the crop. The
existing variations in the demand and supply of off-season for vegetables and
fruits can be lowered by adopting automation and modern machinery.

RELATED WORK

 In 1 , the continuous monitoring and control
of environmental parameters inside the polyhouse using mobile communication is
proposed. To fulfill this requirement of providing proper temperature inside
the polyhouse, the environmental parameter sensors such as temperature sensor
and humidity sensor are used. These sensors provides the information about
temperature and humidity inside the polyhouses, these sensors are used with
AT89S52 microcontroller which continuously receive the data from sensors and
whenever the received values goes beyond the given threshold value, cooling
fans will be turned on to lower the temperature and increase humidity and vice
versa as the system is programmed accordingly. The same information is conveyed
to the farmer and central monitoring and control unit of PC using Global System
for Mobile Communication (GSM). The architecture of the proposed system has
been shown in Fig 1.

 

 ADVANTAGES

·        
By SMS the status of environmental factors
and  varying threshold values of
polyhouse can be controlled from any remote location using the farmer mobile
phone.

·        
The reduced human effort and ideal state
of environmental parameters inside the polyhouse can be observed in its
results.

·        
By using the proposed system, the farmer
can easily keep the desired crop’s environment conditions.

 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not check the soil moisture
which is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse .

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

In 2, the  research work mainly consists of design and
development of an embedded system for polyhouse application. This system
includes 89E516RD microcontroller with three sensors such as humidity sensor ,
soil moisture sensor and temperature sensor employed inside polyhouse. Signal
conditioning circuits of respective sensor, data acquisition system, display
unit and controlling section have been properly designed. The software required
for sensor data acquisition, display and to control humidity, temperature and
soil moisture inside polyhouse by using suitable hardware. The designed system
is used for measurement of the mentioned environment condition and results are
interpreted. The architecture of this system is shown in fig 2.

 ADVANTAGES

·        
It provides accurate measurement of
humidity, soil moisture and temperature and also provides automated control
action.

·        
This can satisfy more accuracy for
medium and large area based polyhouses.

 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse .

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.        

In 3, the  system three types of sensors are implemented
. The sensors to be used are photodiodes, a temperature sensor and a humidity
sensor. These sensors will be connected to a PLC which will function as the
main control unit. The sensors will send signals to the plc and the PLC will
translate the signals and determine if the input is within the preset range. The
PLC will be the central processing unit which will translate the input signals
from the sensors and turn on or off the necessary devices to maintain the polyhouse
at the preset levels.

 ADVANTAGES

·        
This ensures that the environment inside
the polyhouse is suitable for productive uses.

·        
This helps improve crop quality and
quantity. 

 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not check the soil moisture
which is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

 In 4, both GSM and Bluetooth modules are
interfaced with the main controller chip. GSM is used for remotely monitoring
and controlling the devices via a mobile phone by sending and receiving SMS via
GSM network. Bluetooth is used for the same purpose but within a range of few
meters, say when user is inside the periphery of the building where the system
is installed. The motor pumps and fans are controlled automatically using
sensor and the other appliances are controlled by Bluetooth or GSM network via
SMS. The architecture of this system is displayed in fig 4

ADVANTAGES

·        
There is no network usage cost.

·        
Efficient utilization of power.

 DISADVANTAGES

·        
The farmer has to be educated about how
to use the technology.

·        
Implementation cost is higher.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

In 5, the proposed
system aim  is to design a
Microcontroller-based circuit to monitor and record the values of temperature,
humidity & soil moisture level of the natural environment that are
continuously modified and it is get controlled in order optimize them  to achieve maximum plant growth and yield.
Controlling process takes place effectively. Depending upon the application, we
will set particular threshold level for each climatic parameter. When any of
parameters level cross a safety threshold then microcontroller will perform the
needed action by employing relay until the strayed-out parameter has been
brought back to its optimum level..E2PROM is connected to microcontroller for
storing the values of various parameters present at that situation.

ADVANTAGES

·        
Provides real time application .

·        
Beneficial for farmers of many
developing countries.

DISADVANTAGES

·        
Implementation cost is high.

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse .

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

In 6, the system
model consists of sensors, microcontroller, interface such as relay and
actuators. Actuators such as ventilation fan, sprayer, heater, water pump,
artificial lights are used. The proposed system aim is to  design a microcontroller-based circuit to
monitor and record the values of temperature, soil moisture level and sunlight
of the natural environment that are continuously modified and it is get
controlled in order optimize them to achieve maximum plant growth and yield.
Depending upon the application, we will set particular threshold level for each
climatic parameter. when any of parameters level cross a safety threshold then
microcontroller will perform the needed action by employing relay(motor driver)
until  the strayed-out parameter  has 
been  brought back  to 
its  optimum  level. Manual controlling process is done by
zigbee wireless network whenever necessary.  

ADVANTAGES

·        
This has both automatic and manual
control of the system.

·        
When any of input module ie., sensors
does not work properly required actions is not get performed. At that time ,
zigbee wireless sensor network based controlling process can be used.

 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not check the soil moisture
which is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

 In 7, the system
provides an ability to monitor Temperature, Level, Humidity and Moisture
contain in soil. The heart of system is 89CSlmicrocontroller. This is embedded
microcontroller chip which has computer processor with all it support function
(clock and reset), Memory (both program and data) and I10 (including bus
interface) built in to device. These built in function minimize the need for external
circuits and devices to be designed in the final application. The system works
with 5Volt DC power supply. The block diagram consists of the sensors and
signal conditioning circuit for the Temperature, Level. Humidity and moisture
measurement.

ADVANTAGES

·        
Works satisfactory as per the
requirement

·        
Helps in optimum utilization of water
for irrigation

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse .

·        
It does not have any technology to
utilize the rain water.

In 8 , the parameters
temperature, Humidity, Soil moisture, 
are monitored and controlled using ARM processor ,transmitted through
the RS232 to the VB based monitor unit and then to the android mobile phone via
a Wi-Fi or internet connection.  All
sensor values that are collected from the greenhouse were displayed on the LCD
screen. Development process of hardware is a structure imposed on the
development which including Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design using DIPTRACE
software. In this system, C Compiler software is used for programming. This
program can receive data with microcontroller and stored in database. The data
received was displayed on the LCD screen shows the interfacing between the LCD
display and a ARM7 microcontroller.

ADVANTAGES

·        
Useful in hazardous applications

·        
Quick response time

·        
Whole system is Fully automated

·        
Robust system, require low power

 DISADVANTAGES

·        
It does not measure the intensity of
light inside the polyhouse .

·        
It does not have any technology to utilize
the rain water.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Various climatic
parameters have to  be monitored and
controlled to improve the crop productivity. To monitor these parameters
various sensors like temperature sensor to monitor the temperature, Humidity
sensor to monitor the air moisture content, Soil moisture sensor to monitor the
soil moisture content, light intensity sensor to monitor the amount of light
inside the polyhouse are used. The required climatic parameters information can
be acquired from the polyhouse environment using these sensors. In order to
monitor all the above said parameters require large number of sensors and
wires. These sensors obtain the data and various steps are taken to achieve the
target conditions inside the polyhouse. These conditions are achieved using
fans, foggers, coolers, heaters, etc. There are two common disadvantages  in the proposed technologies. First none of
the technologies have all the four sensors i.e. humidity sensor, temperature
sensor, light sensor and soil moisture. Second none of the systems have a
technique to utilise rain water for irrigation of the crop inside the
polyhouse. Thus  new system has to be
developed which has all the sensors and a technique to utilise rainwater for
irrigating the crop inside the polyhouse.