ABSTRACTA Polyhouse is abuilding where plants are grown. Polyhouses are often used for growing flowers,vegetables and fruits plant.
Basic factors affecting plant growth are humidity,water content in soil, temperature, etc. These physical elements are hard tocontrol manually within a Polyhouse and a need for automated prototype arises.Polyhouse automatic control is imperative for the plants to provide them withproper nutrients in the controlled manner. To monitor the greenhouseenvironment parameters effectively, it is necessary to plan a control system.It communicates with the a variety of sensor modules in order to maintain the temperature, humidity and soil moistureefficiently inside a greenhouse by operating a cooler, fogger, dripper andlights according to the necessary condition of the crops. Many differenttechniques have been proposed and implemented for this purpose. This papermainly reviews different presentGreenhouse Monitoring and control systems.
KEYWORDS: Polyhouse,Temperature Sensor, Humidity Sensor, Soil moisture Sensor, Light Sensor. INTRODUCTION In this modern era of industrialization,agriculture plays a notable role on the overall socio-economic development ofIndia. The backbone of Indian Economy is Agriculture.43% of India’ s territorycomes under agricultural lands. Crop growth is mainly influenced by thesurrounding environmental climatic variables, the amount of water supplied andthe fertilizers used for irrigation. By regular monitoring of the soilconditions and environmental conditions the quality of agriculture can beincreased. Polyhouse is ideal for proper plant growth and high yield of the crop,where the climatic ingredients can be controlled automatically. Polyhousecultivation is the modern, intensive and is considered highly productive andenvironment friendly agriculture practice.
Polyhouses are constructed byassigning an ultraviolet plastic sheet of thickness 1501m which lasts for aminimum of 5 years. It is constructed using bamboos or iron pipes. In general thelength of polyhouses is 25-30 feet and width of 4-5 feet. The size of thepolyhouse may vary according to the requirement. Irrespective of the season thetemperature and humidity levels can be automatically controlled in thepolyhouse thus resulting in proper plant growth and high yield of the crop.
Theexisting variations in the demand and supply of off-season for vegetables andfruits can be lowered by adopting automation and modern machinery.RELATED WORK In 1 , the continuous monitoring and controlof environmental parameters inside the polyhouse using mobile communication isproposed. To fulfill this requirement of providing proper temperature insidethe polyhouse, the environmental parameter sensors such as temperature sensorand humidity sensor are used. These sensors provides the information abouttemperature and humidity inside the polyhouses, these sensors are used withAT89S52 microcontroller which continuously receive the data from sensors andwhenever the received values goes beyond the given threshold value, coolingfans will be turned on to lower the temperature and increase humidity and viceversa as the system is programmed accordingly. The same information is conveyedto the farmer and central monitoring and control unit of PC using Global Systemfor Mobile Communication (GSM).
The architecture of the proposed system hasbeen shown in Fig 1. ADVANTAGES· By SMS the status of environmental factorsand varying threshold values ofpolyhouse can be controlled from any remote location using the farmer mobilephone.· The reduced human effort and ideal stateof environmental parameters inside the polyhouse can be observed in itsresults.· By using the proposed system, the farmercan easily keep the desired crop’s environment conditions.
DISADVANTAGES· It does not check the soil moisturewhich is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.· It does not measure the intensity oflight inside the polyhouse .· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water.In 2, the research work mainly consists of design anddevelopment of an embedded system for polyhouse application. This systemincludes 89E516RD microcontroller with three sensors such as humidity sensor ,soil moisture sensor and temperature sensor employed inside polyhouse. Signalconditioning circuits of respective sensor, data acquisition system, displayunit and controlling section have been properly designed. The software requiredfor sensor data acquisition, display and to control humidity, temperature andsoil moisture inside polyhouse by using suitable hardware. The designed systemis used for measurement of the mentioned environment condition and results areinterpreted.
The architecture of this system is shown in fig 2. ADVANTAGES· It provides accurate measurement ofhumidity, soil moisture and temperature and also provides automated controlaction.· This can satisfy more accuracy formedium and large area based polyhouses. DISADVANTAGES· It does not measure the intensity oflight inside the polyhouse .· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water.
In 3, the system three types of sensors are implemented. The sensors to be used are photodiodes, a temperature sensor and a humiditysensor. These sensors will be connected to a PLC which will function as themain control unit. The sensors will send signals to the plc and the PLC willtranslate the signals and determine if the input is within the preset range. ThePLC will be the central processing unit which will translate the input signalsfrom the sensors and turn on or off the necessary devices to maintain the polyhouseat the preset levels. ADVANTAGES· This ensures that the environment insidethe polyhouse is suitable for productive uses.
· This helps improve crop quality andquantity. DISADVANTAGES· It does not check the soil moisturewhich is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water. In 4, both GSM and Bluetooth modules areinterfaced with the main controller chip.
GSM is used for remotely monitoringand controlling the devices via a mobile phone by sending and receiving SMS viaGSM network. Bluetooth is used for the same purpose but within a range of fewmeters, say when user is inside the periphery of the building where the systemis installed. The motor pumps and fans are controlled automatically usingsensor and the other appliances are controlled by Bluetooth or GSM network viaSMS. The architecture of this system is displayed in fig 4ADVANTAGES· There is no network usage cost.· Efficient utilization of power. DISADVANTAGES· The farmer has to be educated about howto use the technology.· Implementation cost is higher.
· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water.In 5, the proposedsystem aim is to design aMicrocontroller-based circuit to monitor and record the values of temperature,humidity & soil moisture level of the natural environment that arecontinuously modified and it is get controlled in order optimize them to achieve maximum plant growth and yield.Controlling process takes place effectively. Depending upon the application, wewill set particular threshold level for each climatic parameter. When any ofparameters level cross a safety threshold then microcontroller will perform theneeded action by employing relay until the strayed-out parameter has beenbrought back to its optimum level..E2PROM is connected to microcontroller forstoring the values of various parameters present at that situation.
ADVANTAGES· Provides real time application .· Beneficial for farmers of manydeveloping countries.DISADVANTAGES· Implementation cost is high.· It does not measure the intensity oflight inside the polyhouse .· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water.In 6, the systemmodel consists of sensors, microcontroller, interface such as relay andactuators.
Actuators such as ventilation fan, sprayer, heater, water pump,artificial lights are used. The proposed system aim is to design a microcontroller-based circuit tomonitor and record the values of temperature, soil moisture level and sunlightof the natural environment that are continuously modified and it is getcontrolled in order optimize them to achieve maximum plant growth and yield.Depending upon the application, we will set particular threshold level for eachclimatic parameter.
when any of parameters level cross a safety threshold thenmicrocontroller will perform the needed action by employing relay(motor driver)until the strayed-out parameter has been brought back to its optimum level. Manual controlling process is done byzigbee wireless network whenever necessary. ADVANTAGES· This has both automatic and manualcontrol of the system.· When any of input module ie.
, sensorsdoes not work properly required actions is not get performed. At that time ,zigbee wireless sensor network based controlling process can be used. DISADVANTAGES· It does not check the soil moisturewhich is an important aspect on which the production of crops matters.· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water. In 7, the systemprovides an ability to monitor Temperature, Level, Humidity and Moisturecontain in soil.
The heart of system is 89CSlmicrocontroller. This is embeddedmicrocontroller chip which has computer processor with all it support function(clock and reset), Memory (both program and data) and I10 (including businterface) built in to device. These built in function minimize the need for externalcircuits and devices to be designed in the final application. The system workswith 5Volt DC power supply.
The block diagram consists of the sensors andsignal conditioning circuit for the Temperature, Level. Humidity and moisturemeasurement. ADVANTAGES· Works satisfactory as per therequirement· Helps in optimum utilization of waterfor irrigation· It does not measure the intensity oflight inside the polyhouse .· It does not have any technology toutilize the rain water.In 8 , the parameterstemperature, Humidity, Soil moisture, are monitored and controlled using ARM processor ,transmitted throughthe RS232 to the VB based monitor unit and then to the android mobile phone viaa Wi-Fi or internet connection.
Allsensor values that are collected from the greenhouse were displayed on the LCDscreen. Development process of hardware is a structure imposed on thedevelopment which including Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design using DIPTRACEsoftware. In this system, C Compiler software is used for programming.
Thisprogram can receive data with microcontroller and stored in database. The datareceived was displayed on the LCD screen shows the interfacing between the LCDdisplay and a ARM7 microcontroller. ADVANTAGES· Useful in hazardous applications · Quick response time· Whole system is Fully automated · Robust system, require low power DISADVANTAGES· It does not measure the intensity oflight inside the polyhouse .· It does not have any technology to utilizethe rain water.
CONCLUSIONVarious climaticparameters have to be monitored andcontrolled to improve the crop productivity. To monitor these parametersvarious sensors like temperature sensor to monitor the temperature, Humiditysensor to monitor the air moisture content, Soil moisture sensor to monitor thesoil moisture content, light intensity sensor to monitor the amount of lightinside the polyhouse are used. The required climatic parameters information canbe acquired from the polyhouse environment using these sensors. In order tomonitor all the above said parameters require large number of sensors andwires. These sensors obtain the data and various steps are taken to achieve thetarget conditions inside the polyhouse. These conditions are achieved usingfans, foggers, coolers, heaters, etc.
There are two common disadvantages in the proposed technologies. First none ofthe technologies have all the four sensors i.e. humidity sensor, temperaturesensor, light sensor and soil moisture.
Second none of the systems have atechnique to utilise rain water for irrigation of the crop inside thepolyhouse. Thus new system has to bedeveloped which has all the sensors and a technique to utilise rainwater forirrigating the crop inside the polyhouse.