According small group markets is provided through employers and

According
to DeNavas-Walt et al., (2010, p.71) public emphasis added A.S. insurance
programs offer health care to approximately 90 million Americans. The two main
programs Medicare and Medicaid were founded in 1965. While Medicare is a
program designed to finance health care for elderly people over the age of 65, Medicaid
finances health care for low-income- or disabled peo­ple. It could be said that
these schemes grant a rather tenuous right to health care, mainly for three
reasons. Due to the constitutional nature of these programs, they could be
“terminated or altered at any time by legislators and regulators” (Hoffman, 2014,
p. 348).
Hoffman (2014) emphasizes that even
though these programs guarantee the financing of some medical treatments, they
do not as­sure access to services, should providers not partake in certain
programs. A third reason for con­sidering this right as “weak” (p.348), is the
limited enforceability through individuals. Other publicly financed programs
are the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), that finances health care
for children whose families are not eligible for Medicaid, Veterans Affairs
health system, covering certain degrees of military veterans, Defense
Department health system, for people actively serv­ing the military and Indian
Health Service, for Native Americans (Barr, 2016, p. 81). The findings of DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith (2010) show, that approximately 195 million
Americans are in­sured through private
emphasis added A.S. health
insurance (p.71). The private sector of US health care is referred to as
private health insurance market and is divided in three parts, particu­larly
“large group”, “small group” and “individual” markets (Hoffman, 2014, p. 349). Insurance cov­erage
for large- and small group markets is provided through employers and is
referred to as em­ployer-sponsored insurance (ESI). The ESI can be considered
an employment benefit. Although employers are not obliged to provide employees
with ESI, it is rather popular, because both em­ployer and employee can exclude
cost for health insurance from taxes (Hoffman, 2014, p. 349). The individual
market for health insurance, represented through private insurers applies when
em­ployees do not have access to ESI. The reasons for this ineligibility are
employers that do not offer health insurance to their employees or certain
employment relationships such as part-time, sea­sonal employment or contingent
work status (Hoffman, 2014, p. 350).

“The
U.S. health care financing system is a maze of public and private insurance
programs, each covering different services and items for different populations”
(Hoffman, 2014, p. 348).

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