According to Kotler & Armstrong (2012), Internal Marketing is defined as “Building of customer orientation among employees by provisioning of training and motivating customer contact and support staff to work as team”. Rafiq & Ahmed (2000) describe internal marketing as one of “Planned effort by using marketing approach to compensate organizational resistance to align, change, motivate and inter-functionally integrate and coordinate employees for the effective implementation of functional and corporate strategies for delivering customer satisfaction with the process of creating customer oriented and motivated employees”. Hogg and Carter (2000) define Internal Marketing as an integral part of Market Orientation which requires utilization of marketing techniques for creating and communicating Company’s Value. Bih-Shiaw’s (2000) postulates IM is HRM department foster employed by using different marketing concepts such as motivation, development, training, Communication, rewards and improvement of welfare to retain motivated and excellent employees”. Varey and Lewis (2000) defined Internal marketing as “emergence of an idea that employees constitute and internal market inside the organization that needs to be informed, rewarded, trained, motivated and educated to meet external customer’s expectation and needs”. Conduit and Mavondo (2001) describes that IM means creating internal environment with service consciousness and customer oriented in organization.
Palmer (2001) describes internal marketing as “Application of practices and principles of marketing to an organization’s dealings with its employees. Piercy (2002) describes “Internal Marketing provides tools and skills to make effective implementation”. Zeithmal, Bitner and Brembler 2002) defines internal marketing as tool to change the behaviors and attitudes of employees toward organizational goals. Ahmed and Rafiq (2003) describes IM as “Philosophy that focus on organizational productivity through customer satisfaction, focuses attention on the satisfaction of customer and improvement of jobs which employees execute involving environment in which they execute them”. Bell et al. (2004, p 114) describes relational internal marketing in terms of Tasks and coordinating relationships through the “Process of maintaining, initiating and developing relationships among employees along with their management and organization for creating value for the customers”.
Arnett, German and hunt (2003) highlight that internal marketing is referred to managers can do alteration in culture of that organization by providing training, hiring and motivating employees that are in accordance with new vision”.(Cited in Yu-Ting Huang, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, 2015) Snell and White (2009) defined “IM refers to ways in which an organization educates and motivates its employees to behave in market-oriented or customer-conscious manner via application of marketing like processes”. Lings (2004) describes internal market orientation as IMO is about satisfying and indentifying the needs and wants as prerequisite to satisfy needs and wants of customer”. Proctor (2010) explained that “IM is a tool of improving customer focus within an organization and paving way for system of having good customer relationship management (CRM). Shiu & Yi ( 2010, p. 800) state that ” IM means creating a working environment are being trained in customer orientation, service skills and service consciousness in order to fulfill customer needs and improving performance of organization.
Jiang (2013) describes IM as a way of treating employees as internal customer and viewing jobs as internal products that fulfill their wants and needs by addressing the objectives of organization”. Abzari et al. (2011) define, “IM has been considered as effective strategy to facilitate organization with competencies and capabilities while enjoying environmental opportunities”. Fortenberry Jr.
and McGoldrick (2015) describes, “IM is a range of efforts directed toward all employees of an organization ,enlightening and educating them as critical roles in retaining & obtaining patronage of customers and promoting their proactive efforts to ensure enhanced the experience of customer”. Munir, Othman and Shukur (2015) highlights that ” IM advances the notion about the discipline that is more than the communication tactics- such as employee meetings and workplace posters or way to build satisfaction of employees”. Kaurav, Othman and Shukur (2015) explained that “IM is concept through which firms apply marketing tactics and tools to retain and attract best employees that directly affect performance of business in non-monetary & monetary terms”. Kanyurhi and Bugandwa Mungu Akonkwa (2016) states, Internal Marketing comprises of efforts by an organization to motivate and train its employees for provisioning of better quality service”.