According trained, motivated and educated to meet external customer’s

According to Kotler & Armstrong
(2012), Internal Marketing is defined as “Building of customer orientation
among employees by provisioning of training and motivating customer
contact and support staff to work as team”.



Rafiq & Ahmed (2000) describe
internal marketing as one of “Planned effort by using marketing approach
to compensate organizational resistance to align, change, motivate and
inter-functionally integrate and coordinate employees for the effective
implementation of functional and corporate strategies for delivering
customer satisfaction with the process of creating customer oriented and
motivated employees”.

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Hogg and Carter (2000)
define Internal Marketing as an integral part of Market Orientation which requires
utilization of marketing techniques for creating and communicating Company’s


Bih-Shiaw’s (2000)
postulates IM is HRM department foster employed by using different
marketing concepts such as motivation, development, training, Communication,
rewards and improvement of welfare to retain motivated and excellent employees”.


Varey and Lewis (2000)
defined Internal marketing  as “emergence
of an idea that employees constitute and internal market inside the
organization that needs to be informed, rewarded, trained, motivated and
educated to meet external customer’s expectation and needs”.


and Mavondo (2001) describes that IM means creating internal environment
with service consciousness and customer oriented in organization.


Palmer (2001) describes
internal marketing as “Application of practices and principles of
marketing to an organization’s dealings with its employees.


Piercy (2002) describes “Internal
Marketing provides tools and skills to make effective implementation”.


Zeithmal, Bitner and Brembler
2002) defines internal marketing as tool to change the behaviors and
attitudes of employees toward organizational goals.


Ahmed and Rafiq (2003) describes
IM as “Philosophy that focus on organizational productivity through customer
satisfaction, focuses attention on the satisfaction of customer and
improvement of jobs which employees execute involving environment in which
they execute them”.


Bell et al. (2004, p 114)
describes relational internal marketing in terms of Tasks and coordinating
relationships through the “Process of maintaining, initiating and
developing relationships among employees along with their management and
organization for creating value for the customers”.


Arnett, German and hunt (2003) highlight that internal
marketing is referred to managers can do alteration in culture of that
organization by providing training, hiring and motivating employees that
are in accordance with new vision”.(Cited in Yu-Ting Huang, Sharyn
Rundle-Thiele, 2015)



Snell and White (2009)
defined “IM refers to ways in which an organization educates and motivates
its employees to behave in market-oriented or customer-conscious manner
via application of marketing like processes”.


Lings (2004) describes internal
market orientation as IMO is about satisfying and indentifying the needs
and wants as prerequisite to satisfy needs and wants of customer”.


(2010) explained that “IM is a tool of improving customer focus within an
organization and paving way for system of having good customer
relationship management (CRM).


Shiu & Yi ( 2010, p. 800)
state that ” IM means creating a working environment are being trained in
customer orientation, service skills and service consciousness in order to
fulfill customer needs and improving performance of organization.


Jiang (2013) describes IM as
a way of treating employees as internal customer and viewing jobs as
internal products that fulfill their wants and needs by addressing the
objectives of organization”.


Abzari et al. (2011) define,
“IM has been considered as effective strategy to facilitate organization
with competencies and capabilities while enjoying environmental opportunities”.



Fortenberry  Jr. and McGoldrick (2015) describes, “IM
is a range of efforts directed toward all employees of an organization
,enlightening and educating them as critical roles in retaining &
obtaining patronage of customers and promoting their proactive efforts to
ensure enhanced the experience of customer”.



Munir, Othman and Shukur
(2015) highlights that ” IM advances the notion about the discipline that
is more than the communication tactics- such as employee meetings and
workplace posters or way to build satisfaction of employees”.



Kaurav, Othman and Shukur
(2015) explained that “IM is concept through which firms apply marketing
tactics and tools to retain and attract best employees that directly affect
performance of business in non-monetary & monetary terms”.


Kanyurhi and Bugandwa Mungu Akonkwa (2016) states, Internal
Marketing comprises of efforts by an organization to motivate and train
its employees for provisioning of better quality service”.