Alzheimer’s dementia and has become one of the biggest

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is
the most common form of dementia and has become one of the biggest global
healthcare challenges. The pathophysiology of this disease is not fully understood
and there are no effective therapies to ameliorate this condition. Prior research
has demonstrated that progressive production and accumulation of insoluble
protein aggregates, such as neurofibrillary tangles of tau and amyloid-? (A?)
plaques in the brain are supposed to trigger pathogenic cascades that
eventually lead to AD, thus leading to brain atrophy and neurodegeneration. Recent
studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role on the pathophysiology
of the disease progression.

 The prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease is increasing especially
in populations of people over 65. The efficacy of treatment is still very
limited due to various factors including the blood brain barrier limitations and
lack of deeper understanding of the neuropathology of AD. Liposomal techniques
have long been utilized as a potent Drug Delivery System (DDS) to the brain,
because the liposomal particles can encapsulate compounds and prevent rapid
elimination or degradation. An encapsulated penetration through the BBB which
in turn increase the effective dose of a compound. The liposomal vesicles are
non-toxic, non-immunogenic (low allergenicity), non-carcinogenic and
biodegradable.

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An amyloid-beta A?
clearance strategy in conjunction with decrease of the oxidative stress is a
novel and promising pursuit as a promising disease modifying therapy to treat
the progression of AD. Prior in-vitro research has demonstrated that nanoliposomes
with curcumin, or the curcumin derivative, were able to inhibit the formation of
(A?) plaques. Similar results were found in cases where the administration of quercetin liposomes and ?-Mangostein nanoliposomes.
Both of these natural flavonoid compounds have shown to protect against neurodegeneration
and facilitated A? clearance. However, a combinatory approach of combining several
potent natural compounds has not be evaluated earlier. The effect of various combinations
of nanoliposomes (a synergistic system containing curcumin, quercetin and ?-Mangostein
collectively in various dosages) on the oxidative stress and decrease A?
aggregation was investigated and certain novel compound synergies were
identified.

A significant problem when
using natural compounds as a therapeutic modality are limitations arising due
to hydrophobic nature, poor aqueous(water) solubility or insolubility in
certain cases. This manifests as low bioavailability and low accumulation in brain
tissue or target organ. A nasal delivery is a noninvasive delivery system, that
can produce higher bioavailability than oral route due to the decrease hepatic
metabolism, shorter distance to brain target and easy penetration through the
brain and enhances pharmacokinetics of the compounds, thus solve the problem of
the nutraceutical efficacy and also act as a novel system of delivering various
molecules into brain in an efficient way