Alzheimer’s fact that Alzheimer’s disease can progress and lead

Alzheimer’s Disease -underlyingbiology, and behavioral symptomsAlzheimer’s disease or dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease is aprogressive degeneration of the brain tissue, which, above all, occurs inpeople older than 65 years (Brookmeyer, R., et al., 1998).

This is the mostcommon cause of dementia, in which there is a decrease in mental abilities. Forinstance, memory impairment, a violation of the ability of conscious perceptionand speech. Attention becomes distracted, the patient is unable to conductsimple operations with numbers, to conduct routine daily activities becomesincreasingly difficult, disorientation and frustration are observed. Symptomstend to worsen at night. Characterized by a fast change of mood – outbursts ofanger, periods of fear, as well as periods of deep apathy. The patient ispoorly oriented, can go wander and get lost. There are also physical disorders,such as unstable gait or deterioration and loss of coordination, which progressgradually.

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Over time, as the disease progresses, the patient may becomephysically helpless, develop urinary incontinence or feces and inability tocommunicate (Brookmeyer, R., et al., 1998). This topic is highly important because of the fact that Alzheimer’sdisease can progress and lead to death in a short period of time in just a fewyears, and for a long time – 20 years. But in most cases, people withAlzheimer’s disease live about 9 years. To date, this disease ranks 6th amongother diseases leading to death. One person in eight at the age of 65 hasAlzheimer’s disease. Women are more prone to this disease than men (Brookmeyer,R.

, et al., 1998).Progressivedecline in memory and agnosia in Alzheimer’s disease sooner or later lead toconfirmation of the diagnosis. The disease affects the different sides ofmemory in different ways. Old memories of their own lives (episodic memory),long-learned facts, implicit memory (unconscious “body memory”, howto use cutlery) are prone to personal frustration compared to new facts ormemories. Aphasia is mainly characterized by the impoverishment of thevocabulary and reduced fluency of speech, which generally weakens the abilityto verbal and written expression of thoughts (Philippe H. Robert, et al.

2005).The presence of psychotic and behavioral symptoms in a patient with Alzheimer’sdisease is extremely negative and costly for those who care for the sick, andfor society as a whole. The appearance of behavioral symptoms in dementia isassociated with emotional distress among carers and is a significant predictorin reducing the functional activity of patients and placing them in psychiatrichospitals. specific groups of symptoms were identified. Behavioral symptoms areusually detected by observing the patient and include physical aggression,cries, anxiety, agitation, wandering, violation of generally accepted norms ofbehavior, sexual disinhibition, curses, etc. Mental symptoms are usuallyassessed on the basis of a conversation with the patient and his relatives andare manifested by anxiety, depression, hallucinations and delusional disorders(Philippe H. Robert, et al. 2005).

Depressive symptoms develop before thediagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease for more than two years, while psychoticsymptoms are detected during the diagnosis of dementia and moreover,apparently, are the reason for a primary appeal to specialists. Behavioralsymptoms, such as aggression, agitation, irritability, developed within thefirst year after diagnosis. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, the severityof most behavioral disorders is associated with the severity of dementia, inturn, the appearance of psychotic disorders predicts a deterioration in thecognitive and functional state of the patient (Philippe H. Robert, et al.2005).The presence of psychotic and behavioral symptoms in a patient withAlzheimer disease is extremely negative and costly for those who care for thesick, and for society as a whole. The appearance of behavioral symptoms indementia is associated with emotional distress among carers and is asignificant predictor in reducing the functional activity of patients andplacing them in psychiatric hospitals (Philippe H.

Robert, et al. 2005).Behavioral symptoms are usually detected by observing the patient and includephysical aggression, cries, anxiety, agitation, wandering, violation ofgenerally accepted norms of behavior, sexual disinhibition, curses, etc. Mentalsymptoms are usually assessed on the basis of a conversation with the patientand his relatives and are manifested by anxiety, depression, hallucinations anddelusional disorders (Philippe H. Robert, et al. 2005). Depressive symptomsdevelop before the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease for more than two years,while psychotic symptoms are diagnosed during the diagnosis of dementia and,moreover, seem to be the lead for a primary referral to specialists. Behavioralsymptoms, such as aggression, agitation, irritability, developed within thefirst year after diagnosis.

In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, the severityof most behavioral disorders is associated with the severity of dementia, inturn, the appearance of psychotic disorders predicts deterioration in thecognitive and functional state of the patient (Philippe H. Robert, et al.2005).For detectionof Alzheimer’s disease, such diagnostic methods are used: MRI of the brain,which can detect atrophy of the medial parts of the temporal lobe, amygdala,hippocampus, posterior cingulate gyrus, positron emission tomography (PET),which allows to detect a decrease in glucose metabolism in these departments(Stéphane P. Poulin, et al.

, 2011).Progressive decline in memory and agnosia in Alzheimer’s disease sooneror later lead to confirmation of the diagnosis. The disease affects thedifferent sides of memory in different ways.

Old memories of their own lives(episodic memory), long-learned facts, implicit memory (unconscious “bodymemory”, how to use cutlery) are prone to personal frustration compared tonew facts or memories. Aphasia is mainly characterized by the impoverishment ofthe vocabulary and reduced fluency of speech, which generally weakens theability to verbal and written expression of thoughts. At this stage of thedisease, a person usually helps to operate adequately with simple concepts inspeech communication (Philippe H.

Robert, et al. 2005).There are plenty of articles that describe the effect of establishedbiomarkers on cognitive performance. These biomarkers include cerebrospinalfluid tau and amyloid-beta42, positron emission tomography Pittsburghcompound-B, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Some modern Ab markers or the courseof neurodegenerative processes are presented (Aschenbrenner, A.

J., et al.,2015). According to one of the hypotheses of the development of Alzheimer’sdisease, this disease is based on factors that lead to the accumulation ofb-amyloid (Ab) in the brain (Ganesh M.

Shankar, et al., 2008). The latterdeposits lead to synaptic dysfunction, the formation of neurofibrillary tanglesand neuronal death, which is accompanied by a decrease in cognitive abilities.Ab accumulation markers include the low concentration of Ab42 in the cerebrospinalfluid and the presence of amyloid plaques on positron emission tomograms(Ganesh M. Shankar, et al., 2008).

The markers of neurodegenerative processesare an increase in the concentration of both general and hyperphosphorylatedtau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, a decrease in metabolic processes inthe temporal and occipital lobes of the brain from positron emission tomogramswith 18FDG, the presence of MRI signs of atrophy in the temporal and medialparietal cortex. In clinical practice, it is customary to classify markersaccording to methods of their preparation (structural MRI, positron emissiontomograms, investigation of cerebrospinal fluid). Since the accumulation ofamyloid occurs long before the onset of clinical manifestations of the disease,its early detection will allow to diagnose the pathology and begin treatment ofpatients with Alzheimer’s disease before the appearance of clinical symptoms,once the effectiveness of the disease-modifying therapy is proved(Aschenbrenner, A.J.

, et al., 2015). The purpose of this research was toprovide an examination of the combined influence of semantic retrieval andattentional control in discriminating cognitively healthy aging fromsymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease, and more importantly to examine if thismeasure is sensitive to accumulating Alzheimer’s disease-related biomarkers inhealthy control individuals. The standard markers of Alzheimer’s disease in CSFare the concentration of Ab42, the total content of tau protein and itshyperphosphorylated form (Ganesh M. Shankar, et al., 2008). The specificity andsensitivity of the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in the analysis of allthree biomarkers are very high and is 85-90%.

However, despite the fact thatthis diagnostic method is already available in the form of commercial kits andsome specialists rely on its results when making a diagnosis, it seemspromising, but not completely applicable to routine clinical practice(Aschenbrenner, A.J., et al., 2015).    There are a plenty of researchers all over the world that investigatedifferent aspects of Alzheimer disease. One of the research areas is the studyof the course of the disease in patients belonging to different races. A groupof scientists led by Lisa Barnes organized a study in which 122 people tookpart, of which 81 people belonged to the European race and 41 to the Negroidrace.

Scientists have studied the brain tissue of patients. In 71% of patientsof the Negroid race, signs of other pathologies other than Alzheimer’s diseasewere found. In the representatives of the Caucasoid race, this indicator was51%. In addition, African Americans were more likely to have blood vesseldisease. The drugs that are currently used to treat Alzheimer’s disease affectonly a certain type of pathology.

The data obtained on the mixed picture of thedisease in representatives of the African Americans will help in creating newmethods of treatment for this group of patients (Hohman, T.J., et al.

, 2016).