Angiotensin-converting in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved
in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active
peptide angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors are widely used as pharmaceutical drugs
in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, angiotensin II association with
breast cancer among certain ethnic population has shown to have possible angiogenic
and mitogenic effects in animal models and human cell lines of breast cancer41. Various research has been
conducted on certain group of population to study the hypothesis of association
between reduced risk of breast cancer and reduced ACE activity. In these
studies emphasis is given to investigate the associations between gene
polymorphisms, such as the study performed among the Chinese women in Singapore
to decipher the relation between the ACE A-240T and insertion/deletion (I/D)
gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk association41. It was found in this study that one or two copies of
low-risk A allele reduced the risk of breast cancer. The study suggested that
the renin-angiotensin system may serve as a therapeutic target for breast
cancer treatment and prevention. Moreover, it was also conveyed that by
excluding patient subjects with medical conditions such as diabetes the risk
reduction was enhanced. As we see, there is a clear association hinted from
this conclusion between the association of diabetes and breast cancer. Similar
study was conducted to assess the frequency of ACE I/D polymorphism in patients
with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the population of Brazil. In this particular
study, it was deduced that no association between the D allele and type 2
diabetes was found in the Brazilian population. The idea behind these
aforementioned performed researches was to find out the association between the
alleles (low-risk/high-risk) and the disease risk. Clearly, since the data
suggests that an integrative study between breast cancer and diabetes has not
been covered in recent researches to have a holistic understanding of the
influence of ACE gene in these diseases, we need to perform an association
study, where in our case we will be focussing on the population of Qatar. In
our research, we will not be limited to variant or polymorphism calling by NGS
analysis for the identification of risk-alleles but, we will also focus on modeling
these mutant alleles at macromolecular level to study protein-drug binding
affinity; this will help to conclude the importance of the drugs to be used to
combat these deleterious diseases by targeting them simultaneously.