Answer: different observation techniques used to gather information to

Identify and describe the developmental theorists (7) and briefly identify their theories
·       A Piaget stages of development
The Piaget stages of development are a blueprint that describes the stages of normal intellectual development, from infancy through adulthood. This includes though, judgement, and knowledge. The stages were named after psychologist and developmental biologist Jean Piaget, who recorded the intellectual development and abilities of infants, children, and teen.
Piaget’s four stages of intellectual development are:
Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months
Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24) through early childhood age 7
Concrete operational. Ages7 to 12
Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood
Piaget acknowledged that some children may pass through the stages at different ages than the averages noted above and that some children may show characteristic of more than one stages at a given time. But he insisted that cognitive development always follow this sequence, that stages cannot be skipped, and that new intellectual abilities and a more complex understanding of the world mark each stage.
·       B) Sigmund freud theory
“Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind, governs to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conccious.”
·       C) Watson
·       D)Bandura
·       E)Maslow
·       F)Skinner
·       G)Pedagogy
Choose 2 of those theorists and explain how their theories still influence practice today




Outcomes 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4  –  By the end of these outcomes you will understand how to monitor children and young people’s development and interventions that should take place if this is not following the expected pattern.
3.1   Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods (answer in 2 parts) (300 words approx)

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a)     Explain a range of different methods of observing children and young people
There are range of different observation techniques used to gather information to monitor all areas of development
·       Checklist
·       Time/ Event sampling
·       Narrative/Anecdotal
·       Sociograms
·       Photographic/ Video
·       Audio
b)     Explain how to use these methods to monitor children and young people’s development
·       The specific observation method chosen will have an impaction what you are able to record.
·       Don’t use a narrative/anecdotal method if you want to assess 5 different fine motor skills.
·       Make sure the child is unaware of what you are doing
·       Only record what you actually see. Not what you think you know
·       Practice new techniques before using them to gather evidence.
·       Your initial report may be verbal, but at some point to provide written evidence
·       Don’t come to conclusion, just provide facts
·       Make sure the report is legible, dated and signed.
·       Keep it brief
·       If you use photographic evidence make sure there is parental permission for this.
·       Keep any artefacts the child has made as evidence too.
·       Early identification
·       Early intervention
·       Referral
·       Specialist input
·       Multi agency response
·       More successful outcomes for child, young person and their family/ carers
Standard measurement
·       There are range of charts containing standard measurements for children and young people called canticle charts
·       These can be used to map physical development and identity and development delay
·       There are measurements for cognitive ability-1. Q tests/ EYFS progress checks/ Ks tests/ GCSE’s
·       There are also measures for social and emotional development
When practionior have concerns regarding a child’s progress one of the first interventions is to monitor the development by observation to produce a ‘base line’ to work from.



3.2   Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected patterns  (300 words approx)

·       Time away from school  for hospitals visits/ Illness
·       Fatigue
·       Physical restrictions
·       Memory
·       Concentration
A developmental delay is said to occur if a child does not reach a milestone within a certain expected time period meaning the age when most children should have reached a certain stage in their development. Growth in each area of development is related to growth in the other areas, so a delay in one area, will cause a risk of developmental delay in other areas. This can happen for various reasons
·      Background – A developmental delay may occur because of the child’s personal characteristics and personality, their motivation and their behaviour. Their background can also include relationships with parents, siblings and carers. Other factors can be: Bereavement, being abused, family break ups, Caring for other family members, being brought up in care, moving to a different area, poor or wealthy background.
·      Health – Often people’s health is determined by a variety of factors such as their genetic make-up, where they live, what they eat and their stress levels. Where children are unwell or have an ongoing medical condition, it may affect their development. Other factors can be: A disability, Life changing illness, dyslexia, mental health, poor diet.
·      Environment – home learning and community environments – again if they have a poor relationships with parents, siblings and carers in the home environment it will have an adverse effect on their development. If the child’s parents are good role models and support the child emotionally and socially they should develop normally. Other factors can be: The school, area where they live, living conditions at home,
Any negative experiences to the child’s background, health or environment can have a negative effect on their development. If the child has risks in relation to either their background, health or environment they may have problems in their development but if they have risks in all the areas then the chances of this increase.