Bollywood, when the title of an industry was acquired,

            Bollywood, the Indian
movie industry, has come a far way and made many popularity spikes over the
last centuries. Early amateur screen images have been transformed into a vast global
economic empire. Bollywood is classified as one of the largest movie industries
in the world and over the course of its growth India’s cinema powerhouses have
made progress in all areas, such as retail infrastructure, financing,
marketing, and distribution of their films. With the growth of the brand “India”
an extreme diaspora has overtaken the international market.


has many definitions, prominently, the movement of goods, capital, technology,
and people across various borders.  While
exploring the globalization of film and the increasing interconnectedness of
Indian society in the modern world, we see a booming economy and in its wave
both positive and negative receptions of Indian ideologies and culture. As we
come across challenges and questions regarding global brand building, reaching
foreign audiences, and acquisitions with international players, we can assume
that Bollywood’s share in the global movie market is budding and will require
an enormous amount of effort and funds to surpass the audience’s expectations. To
do this, India’s entertainment kingpins don’t purely aim to reach the billion
South Asians at home, they tailor for export (Therwath).

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Bollywood has
utilized the audience’s power of an “India diaspora” to begin its growth as the
biggest global cinema industry. Indian diaspora continually exists in countries
like The United States, the UK, Canada, and South Africa all representing an
enormous market share for Indian films with NRI’s immigrating and settling
globally. During the path towards global prominence various films and movies
gained traction internationally. There have been many changes during the 21st
century when the title of an industry was acquired, after that Indian film has
developed extensively. One such change in the 1990’s that allowed interplay
between the local, national, and global levels. In just under those few years
the industry became an organized business rather than an art form, producers
became interested in creating corporate structures and individuals began
pouring money into cinema as ‘investments’.


The government proposed to use Bollywood to shape up India as a ‘soft
power’, believing that they had the capability of acquiring roughly five
percent of the international market, initially starting from two. Kishore
Lulls, the CEO of Eros International, a U.K listed company, releases over 30
new Bollywood films each year and truly believed that the governments target
could be easily and effectively achieved. Secondly, in terms of funding and
capital, the industry kept receiving investors funds from abroad. For example,
film companies like Eros, India Film Company and UTV have raised almost
millions of pounds from recognized investors on the London Stock Exchange and
western companies took advantage and grabbed a significant equity share. In
terms of the tech boom, for many years’ numerous Indian producers have used
special effects technology and guidance from various different countries,
particularly Hollywood. And lastly, India has made significant progress in
terms of casting. Hindi movies have more and more memorable stars now such as
Amitabh Bachchan and Sharukh Khan, people who are now globally recognized, and
notable people working on international movies, particularly again in
Hollywood, whereas also more and more artists from abroad begin to work for the
Indian movie industry.

Bollywood wholly
directs in film production in the Indian national language, which is Hindi. Leading
Bollywood to have the biggest market share in India, despite the fact that it
isn’t where the highest production is located. This can be credited to the
seemingly low and muted prices of tickets. “The Bollywood annual turnover was
calculated at 575 thousand dollars in 2005. Contrary to Hollywood, in which the
same year won 23 million.” (Achland).
Provided that the major of sales derived from the Indian market, where the
ticket’s price was low and the level of piracy notably high. So, the variance
of two incomes was not irrational.  Bollywood
represented the 15% of India film production and justified the 40% of India’s
income, with an annual growth rate of 10 and 20%. Economic performance of Bollywood increased
rapidly. In 2006, Bollywood was recognized from the investors as the main
industry of development in India, which has overcome the first stage and has
been developing in order to become a future global power in the film industry. The revenues in
global markets were skyrocketed. “Between 1998 and 2005, the revenues from
abroad cable and satellite broadcast were increased by 450% and in 2009, they
represented the 15% of the whole revenues.” (Achland).


Since 2010, Bollywood has become the biggest foreign exporter at the
entertainment market of the USA and the most successful movies were being
viewed almost up to seventy-five cinemas in the USA.  The proceeds of
these movies can be compared to those of some of the Hollywood movies. There
are Bollywood movies that have achieved a total gross margin higher than 50%
than the international. Furthermore, the movies have gathered two to three
times higher international revenues in comparison with national bestsellers. Overall Indian economic growth may have
slowed but the entertainment industry is in good health, contributing Rupees
50,0000 crore to the economy, equating to 0.5% of GDP in 2013. The sector
also supports 18.8 lakh jobs.


As the the
government began to make overseas entertainment earnings tax-free, media firms
have focused on foreign markets more than ever. India’s movie exports jumped
from $10 million a decade ago to $100 million last year, and may top $250
million in 2020. That greatly surpasses Hollywood’s $6.7 billion in overseas
profits last year. Attracted by a growing Indian middle class and a more
welcoming investment environment, foreign companies are flocking to Bollywood,
funding films and musicians while helping India’s pop culture reach a wider
audience base. Multinationals like Sony and Universal have taken a new interest
in Indian entertainment. Since New Delhi began to ease rules on foreign
investment in 1991, such companies have set up shop in Mumbai, targeting both
domestic and international markets. Indian entertainment executive Amit Khanna,
playing off of the “Pax Britannica” of the British Raj, calls the
spread of Indian pop culture a “Pax Indiana” an empire of
song-and-dance dramas, Indi-pop songs and Hindi television soap operas (Johnson).


With a move
into global territory, the concept if Indian cinema as a ‘national third world
cinema’ has been both compromised and protested. This invites new labels such
as ‘Asian’, ‘global’, and ‘transnational’. These labels help broaden
understanding of the changes that have taken place within the industry. When
perceived as ‘third world cinema’ films are analyzed as instruments of social
change and homogenizing all works. On the other hand, when seen as ‘first
world’ some argue that owing to its commercial studio base and Hollywood style
productions it no longer can hold its old model. Following Rajadhyaksha’s
concept of ‘Bollywoodization’, he argues that “Bollywood’s world profile is suspect as its
impact and presence in the West has been non-cinematic, or rather extra-cinematic.
Bollywood’s marginal success as a recognizable world cinema is therefore
regarded as purely a by-product of marketing and political multi-culturalism,
as the cinema fails to satisfy world cinema’s taste for high modernism,
realism, genre, serious subjects and political engine.” This suggests that
Bollywood can only push further boundaries if the west expands its restrictive
criteria of what is good and bad in world cinema.


The most recent and arguably the most appropriate category used to
explore and analyze current manifestation is that of ‘transnational’ cinema.
Popular Indian cinema has diffused and become infused with other cultures
through a variety of ways. Not only has it exposed itself through aesthetics
and subject matters but also has promoted and filmed abroad in seemingly exotic
foreign locations. Such as the sensation Race,
filmed in South Africa or even Salaam
Namaste, filmed in Australia. Despite fears of appropriation and
ethnocentrism, scholars have been investigating cross-cultural and
inter-cultural play within these ‘transnational’ films. Transnational cinema
“self-Orientalizes through an ‘auto ethnographic gaze’ consciously exploiting,
eroticizing, parodying and critiquing both home and foreign cultural
conventions. It has enabled Bollywood cinema not only to negotiate Indian
identity among multiple identities, but also to dismantle and re-mystify Indian-ness.” (Carriere).  


Western film reviewers seem to be the usual suspects contributing to the wave
of negative feedback Bollywood has received over the years. The fact is
conveyed that mainstream Bombay cinema had, up until the mid-1980s, remained
generally ignored, ridiculed or misunderstood by Western critics leading to
governing bodies within India making ‘defensive apologies’ on behalf of the
cinema. As a consequence, Indian cinema’s recognition in the First World leaves
something still to be desired. It has been argued that Indian cinema stands in
opposition to the very things Western critics tend to value in cinematic works
of art: a carefully paced narrative, textual meaning, socio-political
undertones; a commitment to originality; a gracefulness in execution; a genuine
emotion; and spatial accuracy. There have been counter arguments that the
cinema solely asks the grown-up adult to engage in infantile displays of
emotion, to return to a naive sense of the world and to forget the real,
logical or rational in favor of fantasy and imagination. It asks the spectator
to externalize emotions taking away one’s privacy, depth, and individuality.


It seems that
these same negative attitudes are still festering, and additional scholars have
tried to bring the same discussion to a more modern context. In discussing its
place in the global age, the concept of world cinema is problematic for
contemporary Bollywood when considered from a Western critical perspective.
Bollywood’s failure in the west is a result of its generic impurity. It lacks
the kind of defined genre which assist film understanding and typically help western
audiences to appreciate foreign films. The cinema’s fundamental characteristics
are frequently and unavoidably devalued and evoke displeasure, particularly in
the West. By acknowledging these internal prejudices, we may be able to
overcome them. It is necessary to comprehend these judgments in order to better
access and comprehend Bollywood, particularly in its newer more modern form (Wright).


negative attitudes towards Indian cinema exist, there is no doubt that the
popularity was to cease. Hindi film retains what most believe to be a ‘cinema
of attraction’. The relationship between a performance sequence and a narrative
is loosely structured exemplifying that its roots were embedded in India, yet
drew influences from around the world. In the modernity of global flows
advances in communication technologies and socialization help to carry all of
the interesting and nuanced positivity that comes with Bollywood. Through its
intriguing song, dance, dress and more, the Bollywood film industry effortlessly
draws attention from viewers worldwide. The same cultural messages that have
been understood by many in India also apply globally.


 While some neighboring countries, such as Sri
Lanka and Nepal share the dominant religion of Hinduism, other neighbors are
predominantly Islamic, such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The
expectancy of humble characteristics by these similar cultures makes Bollywood
more appealing and acceptable. Indian communities in these non-native domains
have added to these countries’ culture, and have been able to broaden their
communities’ film and musical options. It is not only Indian immigrants who are
interested in Bollywood. The minds of some people were not narrow, and the
films and music have been able to entertain and intrigue a number of diverse


As Bollywood continues
to grow and prosper with the assistance of the diaspora of the brand “India” we
can see a transformative global economic empire emerge. What began as
entertainment intended for Indian audiences gradually flourished into a
worldwide phenomenon. Although an enormous amount of effort and funds are
required to surpass the audience’s expectations and prove opinionated critics
wrong in the near future with a drive for growth and takeover, the country’s
film industry will continue to play a larger part on the global cinematic map.