Brazil due to disease and their refusal to submit

Brazil is the largest country
on the South American continent with a rich culture and diverse population. It
is often called the “Land of Contrasts” A.  Brazil Scores a 69 on Power
distance and is considered high. As such many people accept the social hierarchy
that is prevalent in Brazil.  Colonization, slavery, mass migration, and
an unstable political history, all seem to have contributed to the acceptance
of this hierarchy.

Pre colonization:

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 Before Portuguese colonization in 1500 it is
estimated that the indigenous population was between 2-4 million people. The
origins of this population had migrated from Asia over 40,000 years ago
breaking into numerous small tribes B.


Colonization and Slavery:


In April 1500 Pedro Alvarez
Cabral, a Portuguese explorer and his crew landed in what is now called “Porto Seguro” Safe Harbor. He called the
new land “Ihla de Vera Cruz”   Island of the True Cross. The
Portuguese soon began to export the hard, red, wood found in the new territory
which was similar to wood found in East India called Pao Brasil and led to the
territory being called Brazil. A


By 1530 The Portuguese began
to colonize the land and create large plantations to grow cash crops like
sugar. While the indigenous population was first exploited as slave labor their
rapid decline in population due to disease and their refusal to submit to
slavery led to the importation of slaves from Africa. By 1570 a vigorous slave
trade was in existence. It is estimated that between 4 and 5 million Africans
were shipped to Brazil until importation of slaves was outlawed in 1850.
Slavery was abolished on May 13, 1888 C


Mass Migration:


After 1888 Brazil began to
encourage mass migration as a way to “whiten” and “civilize” its country and as
a source of cheap labor. The first and second waves lasted from 1880-1930 and
consisted of about 4 million people from Europe. Migrants from China, Korea,
and Japan also came at this time. The third wave of migrants came between 1930-1953
were mainly Japanese agricultural workers  and were later followed by a small wave of
Syrians, Spaniards, and Lebanese who came between 1953-1960 to work in the
industrial sector. D



Political History:





 During colonization, captaincies were given to
minor nobles and merchants as a central government was impossible for Portugal
to maintain. From 1549-1808 a Governor General was established over these
Captaincies to make a more cohesive and centralized government. In 1808 The
Royal Family, fleeing Napoleon, arrived to take up rule in Brazil. In 1822 The
Royal Family returned to Portugal leaving Pedro I in charge. He promptly
declared independence from Portugal and established a Constitutional Monarchy.
In 1889 the monarchy was overthrown and a series of Presidents followed. E


 In 1930 a Revolution led to a series of
military coups, military rule, dictatorship, and presidencies. Many presidents
have resigned or been removed from office. Due to corruption and civil unrest.
The most recent being the impeachment of President Rousseff in May of 2016. F




 The early colonists brought with them the
Roman Catholic religion and forced it upon the indigenous people in Brazil as
the unofficial state religion. From 1824-1891 it was made the official state
religion. In 1891 Brazil became a secular nation but Catholicism had a large
influence. To the present date Catholicism accounts for 64.6% of the
population. In the 1880’s and the influx of European immigrants brought
Protestantism with them. G Currently Pew Research shows the following
religious breakdown: Catholicism 65%, Protestantism 22%,  others 5% these include: Afro-Brazilian
(Spiritism), Buddhism, and Islam. 8% have no affiliation and consider
themselves atheist or agnostic. In all, with 92% of Brazil’s population
affiliated with a religion it is clear that religion plays an important role in
Brazil. H