Cardiovascular and triglyceride levels, the higher the risk of

disease or CVD as it is commonly known as is the specific name given for a
range of heart and blood vessel disorder including:

(high blood pressure)

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heart disease ( heart attack)

disease (stroke)

vascular disease


heart disease

heart disease


Throughout 2015 exactly 45392 deaths were caused by cardiovascular disease.
This accounted for nearly 30% of all deaths in Australia in 2015. these
statistics include 27% for males and 30% for females. Cardiovascular disease
kills one person every 12 minutes placing it as one of Australia’s largest
health problems.

approximately 4.2 million or one in 6 Australians are affected by
cardiovascular disease. In 2014 and 2015, cardiovascular disease was the main
cause of all hospitalisations with 490,000 individuals being admitted due to
CVD. Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in
Australia. Cardiovascular disease is also the most costly disease in Australia
to the healthcare system and individuals.

people are at risk of cardiovascular disease without being aware of it however
some of these risk factors are non modifiable and cannot be prevented although
could be lessened. These include:

Family history of heart disease may place you at a higher risk of developing
cardiovascular disease.

males aged 50+ have a much higher death rate than that of any other group.

age can be a big risk factor that cannot be modified as the risk of
cardiovascular disease is gets higher as a person ages.

risk factors are risk factors that an individual can change or reduce with time
and changes to their lifestyle choices. Some modifiable risk factors for
cardiovascular disease include:

puts an individual at a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular
disease. The
risk of heart attack and stroke is nearly double for smokers compared to non

blood fat levels can significantly increases the risk of developing CVD as the
higher the blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, the higher the risk of
heart disease.

blood pressure can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease

overweight or obese can put strain on the heart leading to the development of
cardiovascular disease

weight around the waist can lead to an increased risk in the development of
cardiovascular disease.

inactivity can also be a contributing factor to the development of CVD.

order to reduce the risk of developing CVD, we must employ protective factors
to minimize the risk as much a possible. These protective factors include:

regular physical activity can minimize the risk of developing CVD as exercise
promotes weight reduction and reduces blood pressure.

a diet that is low in saturated fats and cholesterol can reduce the risk of CVD
as saturated fat can increase blood cholesterol levels which can lead to an
increased risk of heart disease.

smoking or limiting tobacco smoke exposure can dramatically reduce the risk of

consumption of alcohol can reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease

a low body weight can also decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease as
people with a higher body fat percentage have a higher risk of developing
cardiovascular disease.

low salt diet can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease as too much salt in
the body causes the body to retain too much water which worsens the fluid
buildup that is associated with heart failure.

has a degree to which they are at risk of cardiovascular disease although some
groups are more at risk of cardiovascular disease due to a range of
determinants being their environmental factors, social factors, economic
factors and personal or individual factors. These include:


with a family history of Cardiovascular disease

who have or have recently had high blood pressure

who consume a high fat or cholesterol diet

aged 65+


collar workers

who are physically inactive.    Sociocultural factors are those which
combine social and cultural factors. Sociocultural factors may include:

family- eg. if
your family have a history of CVD, you may be likely to develop it

if your peers smoke, then you might do it too which can lead to a higher risk
of CVD

if the media is showing you a really nice, classy photo of someone smoking, you
may want to do it to look like the model, increasing the risk of CVD.



factors are those which combine social and economic factors. These factors may

if you work for a tobacco company, you may be more likely to smoke, increasing
the risk of CVD.

an educated person may eat healthy in order to have a lower risk of CVD than
that of an uneducated person.

can play a huge part, those who can afford more healthy, expensive foods,
usually do buy them and therefore have a lower risk of developing CVD.

determinants are those which are effected primarily by the actions of the
individual. These factors include:

if a person has the knowledge of which foods are bad for them, they will then
usually go for the healthier option leading to a lower risk of CVD

the skills to make informed decisions are important and therefor being able to
make informed decisions about what foods to eat leads to a lower risk of
developing CVD.

genetics are a factor that cannot be changed a can sometimes lead to genetic
caused CVD.

determinants are those which are impacted by the environment. These include:

location- where a person lives can impact their access to healthcare placing
them at a higher risk of CVD.

to technology- access to technology can impact the amount of knowledge we have
on a subject and the amount of access we have to assistance lines.

national tobacco strategy is a health initiative run by the department of
health that sets out to allow the commonwealth and state/territory governments
to work together and collaborate with non government organisations in order to
improve the health of all Australians. The goal of this initiative is to
improve the health of individuals and reduce the burden tobacco related
illnesses have on individuals, communities and governments. The target group
for this initiative is any individual who smokes or the general 18-65 age
group. They improve the health of individuals by implementing laws, providing
information on tobacco and working with individuals and communities to provide
assistance in quitting smoking, provide areas for support etc.

policy is is the development of policies throughout the government aiming to
improve health for individuals. This includes the development of legislation,
policies, tax, welfare etc.

national tobacco strategy builds healthy public policy by placing high taxes on
all tobacco and tobacco related products making them less affordable therefore
reducing access to tobacco for all individuals which then makes individuals
less likely to use tobacco. This then means less of a chance of developing CVD
which then reduces the strain and burden on the individual, the community and
the government.

national tobacco strategy proposes laws which are enforced by the government
which prevent individuals from smoking in most public places deter individuals
from smoking altogether as they find the habit isolating as they have to leave
the social environment that they are in. This
then discourages the smokers from smoking as they do not wish to leave the
social environment therefore influencing them to give up using tobacco as they
can no longer enjoy it and it becomes a burden on their life. Individuals
ceasing to use tobacco then reduces the burden on the health care system as
tobacco use can lead to cardiovascular disease and a number of different
diseases such as lung cancer.


supportive environments means creating environments where individuals can go
and seek support in whatever they need and not be judged by others. it also
means protection from factors that can threaten good health.

promotion of alarming media campaigns such as the “every cigarette is doing you
damage” campaign embedded a powerful message in individuals and was promoted
throughout communities and the media. This media promotion combined with the
promotion of anti smoking products such as nicotine patches entice individuals
to quit smoking with a supportive system in place to assist them in doing this

introduction of non smoking areas in public spaces provide a space for people
who smoke to take a break from smoking as this area prevents them from smoking
and forces them to leave the space they are in if they feel as though they need
to smoke. Spaces such as these non smoking zones allow individuals to interact
socially with other people without the burden of tobacco smoke lingering and
intensifying a craving. These spaces were enforced by governments in order to
assist the individual and the community with reducing the burden smoking has on
them. These areas may help in assisting existing smokers in quitting therefore
reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

community action means supporting efforts made by communities by setting
priorities, making decisions, planning strategies and implementing them. This
is supported by the government on all levels in order to effectively make a
positive change which will be helpful to individuals.

community action against tobacco use is evident in many recreational clubs and
bistros where people, especially children are provided with a place where they
are free from tobacco smoke as tobacco smoking is illegal in these places. This
is because the community has acted on the laws set about by the government and
ensured that the smoke free areas are created. The creation of these areas may
give the younger generations a different look at smoking therefore deterring
them from the habit which then may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

strategies such as the peer support programs are implemented to teach children
that in a time of self doubt and vulnerability, there are other avenues which
involve smoking that a teen could take in order to improve self esteem and
sense of worth. These programs are reinforced by the community to ensure
community action is there and the problem is rectified.

personal skills means to develop the skills needed to take control ourselves
and utilize the knowledge that we are given through education in order to
improve our health.

 The Quitline
service assists individuals in gathering information to be more knowledgeable
about the effects and implications that smoking has on individuals. The
Quitline also assists individuals in quitting smoking in a way that suits their
lifestyle and will make it as easy as possible for them to quit. The individual
however must have the skills to know that they should call the Quitline to stop
smoking, this is where the education given through advertisements, schooling
and various media outlets assists in giving this knowledge to the individual to
help them make these informed choices. With the knowledge of gathered from
these sources, an individual may then realize the implications that smoking has
on your body and the links between cardiovascular disease and they may stop the

regulation of the packaging of cigarettes assists smokers in making the
decision to quit smoking tom better their health. This regulation on packaging
enforced by the government provides smokers with assistance as the number for
the Quitline
is on the cigarette box therefore assisting smokers in making informed
decisions on quitting smoking.

health care services means individuals, communities, health professionals,
health service institutions and governments work together to create and
maintain a health service which not only provides treatment for existing
illness but also promotes preventative services and behaviors.

patches are recommended to individuals who smoke and by health care
professionals in order to remove the burden on the individual, community,
government and health care system and assist the individual in quitting
smoking. This practice promotes the healthy lifestyle for the individual and
aims to reduce the burden smoking has on these various areas. This will also
reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease as the reduced rate of smoking will
also reduce the risk of CVD and hopefully sever the link between the two.

refers to the uniqueness of each individual in Australia
and acknowledges that they are all different from the person next to them in
some way. Australia is especially unique therefore it requires a range of
strategies in order to achieve good health for all individuals.

national tobacco strategy takes diversity into account when creating strategies
and therefore when creating initiatives creates them in various languages for
different cultural groups, changes the method of delivery in specific areas
such as rural areas where Wi-Fi is not a common occurrence and therefor they
are forced to use other means of presentation such as newspaper advertisements,
pamphlets and even methods as simple as placing awareness raising signs in
stores where tobacco is sold. The national tobacco strategy aims to reach every
tobacco user in Australia in order to create a healthier Australian population
therefore they utilize every method possible to reach each and every
Australian. Participation is the empowerment of
individuals and communities to be involved in planning and decision making for
good health. This allows everyone to have a say in their own health.

The national tobacco strategy allows
individuals to participate in having a say in their health as the individual is
the only person who can decide whether to smoke or not therefore the individual
has the final say. Individuals can also go to the website to find
more information on the national tobacco strategy in order to educate
themselves on the matter and make their own decisions.equity means fair allocation of resources
and entitlements without discrimination which in this case means we must ensure
that all individuals no matter where they live, where they’re from or who they
are as a person, they all have the same access to health care and services
which allow them to be assisted in quitting smoking or simply becoming more
educated in tobacco and its effects.

The national tobacco strategy ensures
equity is equal by providing information on multiple platforms such as
websites, pamphlets and newspapers. They also ensure anybody can have immediate
assistance with quitting smoking by providing numbers for helplines such as the
smoking Quitline. This allows all individuals regardless of their location or
culture to access services to help quit smoking or simply find information on
the topic of tobacco. This will hopefully also reduce the chance of
cardiovascular disease developing within the body.

is the availability of health services, information and education. The national
tobacco strategy provides access to anyone in Australia and provides
information on multiple platforms such as the internet, the newspaper and in
pamphlets. The national tobacco strategy also ensures that individuals know of
other platforms that the government provides individuals with access to such as
the Quitline
in order to maximize the positive effect they can have on other peoples health.
The national tobacco strategy especially focuses on the ATSI population as they
have a very high rate of cardiovascular disease. This group is often located in
rural areas therefore the national tobacco strategy is utilizes different
strategies in order to ensure they have the same access to health care as the
people who may live in inner city sydney.

means equitable opportunities for all individuals to achieve good health. The
national tobacco strategy understands that everybody has a right to health care
and therefore provides information free to the public in order to provide
everyone with access to the same information which they can then use to better
their health.  Supportive
environments simply means social, environmental and political conditions need
to be included in the process of decision making and planning if population
health is to be improved. The national tobacco strategy creates supportive
environments by working with governments and communities to legislate and
enforce smoking free areas in order to give non smokers and people who are
wanting to quit a place away from the smoke and the temptation that the
cigarette smoke may bring some people. This also makes it harder for smokers to
smoke while in social situations as many places are smoke free zone therefore
they may not choose to leave the social situation to have a cigarette but
rather stay and pass on the cigarette. These supportive environments will
hopefully reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease for both primary and second
hand smokers.

governments role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease is to provide
funding to hospitals, research organizations and government and non government
organizations in order to promote the prevention of cardiovascular disease
rather than the curing of it.

government also implements laws in order to provide a healthy public policy and
create supportive spaces. For example, the government created a law where there
was to be no smoking in many public areas including playgrounds, buildings,
schools etc. this was to assist in protecting non smokers from taking on the
negative health consequences which come with second hand smoking. The
introduction and implementation of this law provided great results by reducing
the amount of second hand smoke a person breathed in, therefore reducing the
prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Communities provide support for
individuals and groups so they can easily and effectively create a healthier
lifestyle in order to reduce the risk of developing Cardiovascular disease.
This support may be provided in the form of support groups, social activities,
home check-ins, phone calls etc. communities may have systems set up in order
to ensure that all individuals receive the support they need though programs
and strategies set up through community leaders of volunteers. In the case of
cardiovascular disease, a support program may be organized which presents
individuals with a partner in the community who checks in on them through the
dam whether it be physical visits, phone calls or letters.

individuals responsibility is to take on education and knowledge they have been
given/taught and put it into action. For example, if an individual thought they
had cardiovascular disease and had identified this through prior knowledge they
had of the disease through school education, they could take action by going to
the doctors and getting a check up rather than waiting for a major symptom such
as a heart attack or a stroke. This would be an example of how an individual
could take responsibility of their own health.

summary, the health promotion initiative ‘the national tobacco strategy
2012-2017’ serves to provide individuals with a strategy which assists them in
quitting smoking and bettering their health through the use of the Ottawa
charter. This health promotion initiative has been quite effective so far with
smoking rates down 9.3%  in 2014/15 from

national tobacco strategy works with the government to build healthy public
policy by raising tax on tobacco items therefore making it too expensive for
smokers to continue their habit and forcing them to turn to services such as
Quitline in order to effectively quit smoking.

national tobacco strategy works in conjunction with the government to provide
supportive spaces such as no smoking zones which protect the general public
from second hand smoke and allows smokers to have a place where they are not
being tempted with this smoke lingering therefore making it easier for them to
quit.     The
national tobacco strategy works with communities in order to strengthen
community action  through the use of
educational support systems in schools. These support systems may be peer
support systems which provide students with emotional support so in times of
need they can receive support instead of turning to smoking to try to make
themselves feel better.

national tobacco strategy works towards developing personal skills in
individuals through the use of advertisements in newspapers, pamphlets and on
online platforms. This advertising and promotion of awareness of the
consequences of tobacco promotes awareness of the Quitline and their work in
helping individuals quit smoking. Individuals then take their knowledge that
they have learned through the advertisements and decide what the best choice
for them is.

services now recommend nicotine patches to smokers in order to assist them in
quitting smoking instead of treating the consequences of smoking when they
arrive. This is enforced by the government to reorientate the health care

Justice Principles.” HSC

of Health.” Determinants of Health | Healthy
People 2020,

Tobacco Strategy.” Australian Government Department of