CausesThe ash and dangerous gasesDrop in tourist numbers in

CausesThe Eurasian plate is moving away from the North American Situated on the Mid Atlantic ridge – constructive plate marginThe volcano has erupted 6 times in the pastLocated beneath the ice cap in southern Iceland This is the result of a convection currents in the Earth’s crust that determine the direction of movementFirst erupted was on the 20 march 2010Primary events: Day turned to night due to the ash clouds – rescuers wore face masks to prevent chokingAs the plates pulled apart, fissures were created from which lava came out Little explosive activityThe most damaging eruption occurred on the 14 April 2010Secondary events:The 150 m thick ice cap above the volcano melted – causing major flooding When the magma and water reacted together, it created a plume of volcanic ash and gas over 10 km high and was then carried by winds towards other countriesSocial impacts :Homes were damaged by floodingFlights were cancelled because of the ash in the air – many people had to stay in IcelandRoads were damaged by flooding – people could not leave for safetyIt was difficult to breath the outside air because of the ash and ges – breathing masksEnvironmental impacts :Farm lands were damaged by flooding, heavy ash falls and gasesAffected part of Iceland’s coastal sand plainA 3mm layer of ash was deposited across the landscapeLocal water supplies were contaminated with fluorine from the ash – dangerous for animalsEconomic impacts :Agricultural production was affected as crops were damaged because of thick layers of  ash and dangerous gasesDrop in tourist numbers in Iceland – affected the country’s economy, people’s jobs and incomesFlights were cancelled – airlines lost 2 billion dollars Supplies of food from other countries could not be flown over to iceland due to the ashShort term responses :The Icelandic meteorological office install a 24/7 watchFarmers were warned about the contaminated water – told not to let animals drink outdoors waterPart of route 1 were removed to allow flood waters to drain into the sea and reduce the damageA warning system was used to send texts to people on IcelandFarmers were evacuated by authoritiesInternational – large sections of airspace were closed downLong term responses :Roads and embankments were reconstructedCompensation was provided to travellers who had been stranded New regulations were introduced for aircrafts to follow in cases volcanic ash might be a problemA farmer and his family set up a visitor center where visitors pay them to tell their story of the volcano eruptionThe ash was dug up from the bottom of rivers to make them deeper – floodingHigh tech equipment is now used to measure volcanic activityHow can the effects of a future eruption be minimised?Earth scientists, engineers, transport experts, statisticians, atmospheric modellers and ethicists, have come together to work on the future Icelandic volcano activities and its wider consequences National capabilities for measuring and predicting volcanic ash in and around UK airspace should be enhanced.The potential threat of volcanic ash to aircrafts should be added to the National Risk Register.Mechanisms should be put in place by stakeholders so that a communications centre can be established in order to warn and help the public during future eruptionsooo