CHAPTER this country. An agriculture industry in Malaysia has

CHAPTER
2

LITERATURE
REVIEW

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2.0 Introduction

            In
chapter 2, it will discussed about the past research which already discovered
by the researchers from the past.  The
past research is mainly retrieve from the research journal at the past and it
has been further discuss in this topic. 
It can become an evidence to support this research. The chapter 2 also
discussing about the variables in this research and focus on the influence of
source of information toward purchasing intention.  Furthermore, the relationship between the
variables will be discussed and the adapted theory will be provided to show the
relationship between the variable.  Then,
the hypothesis is come out to support this research.

2.1 Review of key concepts

            The
different meaning of word regarding the topic will be discussed further in the
following part.  The key concept is
mainly use to reword the question and make in more clearly understand by reader
(Keohane & Olmstead, 2016).

2.1.1 Tropical fruits

            This research is mainly discussed
about tropical fruits which can be found in Kuching, Sarawak.  There can found many types of tropical fruits
in Sarawak. Tropical fruits will only be found in the tropical rainforest.  There can found several category of tropical
fruits available in the market, the category of the tropical fruits can be
categorized by determine their attributes, ease to consumption, based on
seasoning, time to consuming and the characteristics of the tropical
fruits.  Some of the examples of tropical
fruits are such as durian, mangosteen, rambutan, langsat, cempedak, guava, rose
apple, papaya, starfruit, watermelon, jackfruit, mango, pineapple and sapodilla
(Normah, Malik, Chaudhury, Salma and Makeen, 2013).  Then, a lot of rare tropical fruits also can
be found in Sarawak.  Since Sarawak has
strategic geographical area.

            Malaysia
is one of a country which is occupied with several abundance of beautiful
natural resources which is suitable developing for marketable and encourage
tourist to visit this country.  An
agriculture industry in Malaysia has a lot of contribute to our Malaysia
economy nowadays.  The fruits and
vegetables eaten by consumers are all categorized under the agriculture
industry in Malaysia.  The tropical
fruits can be in several forms which is fresh or canned.  Consumers are more willing to buy fresh
fruits comparing to canned fruits. 
Although they buy for fresh fruits, but canned fruits still are
marketable.  This is because canned food
can save consumer time and easily found in supermarket.  Some consumer might need to have some
experience on the fruits, but not depend on the sights or sounds of the fruits
when they make purchase on the tropical fruits (Llin & Gaztelumendi,
2012). 

            The
tropical fruits that can be found in Kuching, Sarawak are usually high in
vitamin content (Hiwilepo, Bosschaart, Twisk, Verkerk, and Dekker, 2012).  There also can found some visitors come from
other countries come to buy the tropical fruits in Kuching, Sarawak.  The rare tropical fruits which can found in
Kuching, Sarawak can be considering also as an iconic food in Kuching,
Sarawak.  According to Symons (1999),
iconic food is a fundamental element of a place’s attribute, increase the
attraction and enrich visitor experiences. 
Then, the local tropical fruits can make visitors to visit to Kuching,
Sarawak also.  This will contribute to
the local fruits market.

2.1.2 Source of Information

            Information
regarding a understanding of an individual or consumer when they decide to make
a purchase decision is necessary required to have when making purchase toward
tropical fruits or some rare fruits.  It
is help to get a better understanding about the fruits which is going to eat
and know their functions and attribute. 
Then, the consumers will not regret to buy the several fruits which are
never tried before.  The information
enables consumers to measure among what is right and what is wrong of the
information.  There are several sources
of information related to the purchase intention.  In this research, the source of information in
this study includes electronic word-of-mouth, social interaction and
advertisement.

i. Social Interaction

            The
first of the sources of information affecting consumer purchase intention
toward tropical fruits is social interaction. 
A social interaction can be happened in anytime or any place when there
are more than one people is met together and discuss about somethings.  The social interaction may be in the positive
form or negative form.  The positive
interaction among people can tend to create a strong information network
(Heaphy & Dutton, 2008).  This
information network could affect the daily life of individuals and motivate the
particular norms.  Within their social circle,
the relationships of person’s exchanges information about childbearing choices,
learn about other’s preferences, from expectation on their future choice (Khan,
Kamble, & Khatri, 2011).  According
to Isaacs (1993) defined dialogue as a sustained collective review into
processes, assumption and certainties that everyday experience.  The powerful of dialogue influences the
consumer behaviour in term of making decision. 
The experience includes interaction with others, product or service-used
experiences and any experience brings meaning to embody in society.  The consumers will affected by the dialogue
and influence the intention towards mentioned tropical fruits which are never
tried before.  Freese and Burke (1994)
claimed that group process depend on symbolic interaction and interpersonal
transaction.  The symbolic interaction
use words as important tool to express people’ experience and as a basic of
social interaction (Blumer, 1969).

            Social
interaction is formed by non-symbolic interaction and symbolic interaction and
persons tie their situations of interpersonal interaction to their social
systems of interaction (Freese and Burke, 1994)).  Hence, social organization and social
interaction are influenced by feedbacks that cycle from non-symbolic through
symbolic interaction and back, in order to understand the way of individuals behave
and social structures function.  The
personality as a structure of identities and derived from network of roles,
statuses and norms of the individual’s subcultures (Stryker, 1980).  The networks provide a structure of
interpersonal interaction and thus a way to locate, define and identify
individuals.  The identities of the
individual are used to be organized symbolic meaning which relation the
individual social structure.

            From
the recent collected data from Toposophy found that the top prompted consumer’s
decision to choose the tropical fruits which never been tried before is based
on recommendation from their trusted inner circle, such as peers and family
(Manolis, 2014).  Since the opinion of
consumer’s reference group have great impact on consumer’s decision
making.  This is also become the concern
of the local tropical fruits market should provide a good services to their
customer and in order to increase the positive reviews and feedback for the
customer who will be coming in the future to make the purchase. 

            According
to Scheinkman (2008) claimed that social interaction is refer to particular
information exchange and communication, verbally or non-verbally, in which the
actions of a reference group influence a person’s preferences.  The consumers are more rely on the
information given by their peers.  Hence,
if the good reviews of the tropical fruits are given, the consumer’s purchase
intention towards the fruits is increase too. Each person’s behaviour change
not only because the direct influence of fundamentals, but also due to the
change of their peers (Scheinkman, 2008). 
This indirect effect is known as social multiplier which aggregate
relationship that would overstate individual elasticity (Glaeser, Sacerdote
& Scheinkman, 2003).  The social
multiplier existing at any social activities that there is a positive social
interaction.  When an individual choose
destination, the presence of these interaction is result on segregation across
space (Schelling, 1971).  It is proved
that individuals have different reaction with the presence behaviour of others.

            Visitor
Information Centres (VICs) is the first place that could enhance friendly
culture to welcome the visitors to a destination. VICs should able enhance the
interaction between visitors and visitor destination through well-prepared
communication mediums for tourist information (Deert, Jago, Mistilis, D’Ambra,
Richards & Carson, 2007).  It is able
the visitors having quality information exchange with the local people and
hence increase the attention for certain promoting tourism products or services
that being developed by the destination. 
According to Sheldon (1997) stated that the model of tourism information
exchange include three main agents, which are supplier, travel intermediaries
and visitors.  All the related
information sought by consumer within model. 
Those information is collected by intermediaries or directly by the
suppliers which enable enhance the quality of information.

ii. Electronic Word-of-Mouth

            eWOM
is a concept of word-of-mouth through electronic form, it is transfer through
an informal way among the different individual. 
It exchange the information among the consumers through internet.  The information which is exchange between the
consumer are such as their own perception and preferences about certain
tropical fruits which is available at the certain place.  This type of word-of-mouth can enhance the
purchase intention on specific tropical fruits especially rare tropical fruits
which can only buy in Sarawak.  According
to Dellarocas (2003), the basic of internet differs from mass communication is
its bi-directional nature, which is the two way communication among electronic
users.  These messages and information
obtained from friends, family, and acquaintances are very important which might
affect the consumers’ purchase intention towards tropical fruits in Kuching,
Sarawak.  Consumers would seek related
information online and interact with those people who have eaten those fruits.  They might take those comments as advice to
judge the fruits.  This explanation is
especially for some of the special fruits which can only found in Sarawak but
no other states in Malaysia.  Since
Sarawak has more landmass of natural forest compare to other states, many
delicious fruits can be founded at Sarawak. 
Those information obtain from the internet may be wrong.  So, the information brings the form of
objective messages in addition to subjective personal opinion and
experiences.  It may bring bad impacts or
positive impacts toward those specific fruits in Kuching, Sarawak.  This is because everyone has different
preferences of taste compare to others.

Through the advance of technology,
the channel of communication is changed and become more active “in the
air”.  In the traditional way, people
interact with other by face-to-face, exchanging letter, even getting
information from newspaper, televisions and some related articles that had been
published.  Now, people can interact with
people “in the air”, they can virtually “face-to-face” chatting with their
peers with internet, they can send millions of messages to the worlds with
internet, by the ways, they also can obtain unlimited information in the
internet data world.  According to the
Hawkins, Best, and Coney (2004), the practice allows users to share information
and experiences that direct buyers towards and away from specify good, brands
and services is known as Word-of-Mouth (WOM) communication.  Recently, WOM was defined as face-to-face
communication about products or brands between consumers (Carl, 2006).  However, Westbrook (1987) described WOM which
include all informal communication directed at other consumers about the
particular brands, product and services. 
The informal information is not clearly defining in his study but he is
indicated that the communication is opposed through mass media channels that
given product information from sellers. 
Buttle (1998) claimed that WOM can be facilitated by internet.  Based on definition of Westbrook (1987),
electronic Word-of-Mouth can defined as all informal communication directed at
users through internet-based technology related to particular brands, products
and services.  This includescommunication
among consumers and with producers, two parties are both integral parts of the
WOM flow (Goldsmith 2006; Lazarsfeld, Berelson, & Gaudet, 1944).

            Bruyn
and Lilien (2008) stated that the electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) is a
significant phenomenon that sellers have tried to exploit the possible profits
and values through efficiency of viral marketing.  This is because the internet is an important
tool to enhance the interconnection among consumers.  The effectively of online is the customer
reviews as a platforms which promoted by the sellers websites for all users
share the information and experiences more easily than ever before (Bruyn &
Lilien, 2008).  Visitors able obtain the
destination’ iconic foods information and interact with them to further
understand the destination culture and foods. 
This interconnectivity is a global phenomenon that assists the
dissemination of both positive and negative WOM (Shankar, Smith, &
Rangaswamy, 2003).  This dissemination
cannot be easily control.  Some of the
visitors will reject to the destination’ iconic food because the bad reviews of
some bloggers or some negative news about the certain food ingredient is
used.  Bruyn and Lilien (2008) specified
that the consumers is the most common version of intentional viral marketing
when they become the promoter of the products or services and spread the
experiences to their friends.  This is a
positive way of eWOM virally transfer the information among the people.  They share the fun, happy or valuable
products to their peers but also the bad experience with the products too.

            Furthermore,
the traditional WOM is ranked as the most significant information source that
effect consumer decision making, especially in the hospitality and tourism
industry (Litvin, Goldsmith, & Pan, 2008). 
It is showed illustrated that the WOM become digital, the internet
prompts new ways of capturing, analysing, interpreting and managing online
WOM.  The spread of electronic
technologies changed the traditional WOM to more virtual interaction among
consumers (Goldsmith, 2006).  The
important aspect of decision making process of those goods and services is the
emotional risk of reference group evaluation (Lewis & Chambers, 2000).  Furthermore, Litvin, Blose, and Laird (2004)
noted that visitors’ food selections were predominantly affected by WOM recommendations
of opinion leaders and few decisions based on formal media.  This change the tourist trade shift their
emphasis from traditional marketing channels to non-traditional interpersonal
marketing strategies, which is more emphasize on food quality, customer
relationship and customer services.

            The
eWOM brings both new possibilities and challenges for public.  According to Hennin-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh
and Gremler (2004) stated that the eWOM is a lost cost, broader scope and
increased anonymity media that available to consumers and consumers are seems
likely increasingly exposed to the advice of online opinion leader.  The eWOM is different from the ephemeral
nature of WOM, it exists in internet which can be accessed, linked and searched
(Litvin, Goldsmith & Pan 2008). 
Therefore, the visitors are more relying on search engines to obtain the
travel information.  The eWOM would
unavoidably change the structure and accessibility of travel information and
also the travellers’ experiences and perception of various travel products
(Litvin, Goldsmith & Pan 2008). 
Thus, eWOM can create virtual relationship with societies among readers
and creators of WOM.  It actually create
a new type of reality by influencing readers during their online information
search.  Website is one to many medium
which can used to create the “buss” in order to stimulate eWOM among visitors
(Litvin, Goldsmith & Pan 2008).  An
effective website should offering users the ability to access the opinion of
satisfied users rather than only share information, such as positive review and
personal experiences of iconic foods.

iii. Advertisement

            The
several printed media advertisement which are the sources of information come
from to affect consumer’s purchase intention are such as newspaper, leaflets,
brochures, magazines and catalogues. 
These types of printed media advertisement can attract consumer’s
attention and gain more knowledge about the tropical fruits (Iorache, Parpandel
and Rizea, 2010).  Sometime consumer will
obtain the information of tropical fruits from newspaper through the sales
promotion advertisement of supermarket. 
Then, for the electronic advertisement tools are such as television
advertisement, radio advertisement and internet advertisement.  Consumers will tend to get the information
toward tropical fruits through the electronic advertisement.  For example, electronic advertisement through
social network apps can spread the information faster and help to reduce the
advertising cost from the tropical fruits seller or people have knowledge about
the local tropical fruits (Cooper, 1996). 
However, Malaysia has not put enough investment into advertising the
tropical fruits to public, especially in Sarawak. 

Advertisement is a general, passive
and informative media that provides basic ideas about the countries or regions
that visitors interested to know. 
Advertisement should able to build awareness and encourage visitors to
trial the recommended places and foods. 
The role of advertisement is create demand for goods and services and
thus affect the purchase intention.  Iordache,
Parpandel and Rizea (2010) noticed that graphical advertising is important
tourist information documents as a source of information.  The tourist advertising leads the primary
role to publish the visitor’ needed information in tem of degree of use,
usefulness and effectiveness.  Those
information in term of degree of use, usefulness and effectiveness.  Those information should well designed and
distributed to any place that visitors might go and stay, such as tourism
agencies, unit accommodation, transport companies and tourist areas.  There is various choices of advertising
channels to distribute the tourist information, such as the printed media and
electronic media.  This advertising media
is considering from high-tech possibilities using computers to low tactics such
as flier, leaflets and brochure (Yapparova, 2013).

            Getz
and Sailor (1993) defined brochure is a standard tool of communication in the
course of interest that provides information, knowledge and create awareness
of  the existence of destination.  Brochure is the most customary support to
promote tourism products through advertising and special qualities from an
economic (Morgan & Pritchard, 2000). The brochures is cost effective
compare to other media because it can multiplied in the country in bulk and
distributed in various parts of world. 
The design of advertisement must choose particular photos to tenfold the
text to root the image and create intention to visit and purchase the tourist
products.  The travel catalogue, the
travel guides, the travel magazine, leaflet of flyer and display advertising
are the example of printed advertisement. 
Travel catalogue is designed with same structure and with different
segments of travel (Nedelea, 2003).  The
display advertising the oldest tourist promotion tool which is more costly and
located in highly circulated places, such as airports, stations or shopping
centres (Morgan & Pritchard, 2000). 
The display advertising used poster which typically a graphical
representation of a regions with some best text.  The Major advantage of these tools is offered
the utility to guide the visitors in term of choosing route of travel,
accommodation and meals, however the important is promote the tourism
activities of particular regions (Iordache, Parpandel, & Rizea, 2010).

            Furthermore,
other than printed media advertising , electronic advertising is another
concern to deliver tourist information to visitors.  The development of internet lead the change
of commercials and advertising medium. 
There is big possible that visitors accept e-commerce and online
advertising as main communication tool to obtain the needed tourist information
(Kim, Kim, & Han, 2007; Murphy & Tan, 2003).  The convenience of internet create a
borderless platform for visitors seeking needed information.  Buhalis and Licata (2002) claimed that the
internet advertising significantly impacts travel and purchase behaviour.  This advertising provides a channel to distribute
information to consumers in the form of “enterprise and consumer interactive
scenarios”.  On the other hand, the mass
media is a traditional way to create brand or product awareness among the
consumers.  However it is costly, Mass
media advertising is the most visible and prestigious form of advertising
(Yapparova, 2013).  It is the most
convenient way to reach large audience in short time.  According to Hackley (2010) claimed that the
mass media advertising is the perfect media to portray brands as accessories to
these aspirations.  Satellite and
traditional TV channels have a great power to convey values and communicate
engaging all sorts of people, attract public’s attention on a broad reach
(Yapparova, 2013).  TV retains the
importance in the media mix, which has huge power holds its audience, diversify
primetime thereby search for a new audience.

            Muller,
Alt and Michelis (2011) stated that advertising is part of marketing mix.  The marketing mix is a marketing instruments
that includes 4Ps which are product, price, promotion and place, use to reach
their target audiences directly (Kotler & Keller, 2008).  The detailed tourist information should
clearly wrote on advertisement, such as the detail of tourist product, the
price of goods and services provided and the seasonal promotion.  All the tourist information should distribute
at the right place, which able approach large number of visitors.  Burmann and
Arnhold (2008) claimed advertising is one of the marketing mix as a mass
communication process and designed to change the recipient’s attitudes and
behaviour.  The general goal of
advertising is deliver information to a specific group of recipients and ensure
the desired effect is achieved.  Meffert,
Burmann, and Kirchgeorg (2007) said that advertising objective have a direct
mass-end relationship and its achievement contribute to fulfilment of higher
desire goals.