COMPILINGOF DRAWINGS (Learningoutcome 3) Name: Denisheo HectorStudent Number: 213551195Company: AECOM South AfricaPractical 2 Assignment Contents Plagiarism Plagiarism is the stealing and using of someoneelse’s work (language, thoughts, idea or expressions) and using it as one’s ownwork. It is presenting someone else’s work without crediting the source,therefore, committing literary theft. (BETA, 2014) Plagiarism isconsidered as academic dishonesty; it can result to penalties or suspension.Plagiarism is not considered a crime but a serious ethical offense. 1) IntroductionWhen a tender is awarded to the consultant engineerby the client to design and manage a project, the consulting engineer designsand check the designs to his satisfaction, before the drawing can begin.
Afterthe design has been complete and checked, the next phase is the compiling thedrawings to meet the design perimeters. The conceptual drawings are often derivedfrom the conceptual design which is established after preliminaryinvestigation, which involves geotechnical analyses (road profile) and soilprofiling have been completed. These conceptual drawings are often very basicand are presented in 3 different designs to the client, after the client hasselected one drawing, then a detailed drawing for construction purposes can start. Drawings are a way of portraying what one hasconceived in one’s mind and bringing it to life for other people to see.
Drawings are used worldwide as a language for the creatives in civil engineeringa certain procedure is taken before a drawing is implemented on site. In thisassignment I have researched drawings as a whole while focusing on constructiondrawings also known as working drawings as well as the process the drawingshould undergo and factors that are taken into consideration, before thedrawing can be approved. 2) What areconstruction drawings?Construction drawings also referred to asworking drawings, are used by all involved in a project to work on the actualbuilding of the design. These drawings provide all relevant information, bothgraphic and written, about the project. Construction drawings are vital in asense that they should be taken care of so that they do not deteriorate before theend of the project, and that would contributed save costs since there will beno need for re-printing the drawings copies halfway the project. 3) Classificationof drawingsThereare many types of drawings and no particular method of categorizing it, howeverdrawings are generally classified by the intended purpose of the drawings: a) Location drawings/general arrangement drawings-These types ofdrawings present the overall composition of an object like a buildingb) Installation drawings-Providesinformation to install parts such as ventilation systemsc) Engineering drawings-Technical drawings used to explain therequirements of engineering components and productsd) Detail drawings-Provide a detail description of geometric formof an object like a tunnel a bridge or tunnele) Design drawings-Used to develop and communicate ideas about adesign in the early stages of a projectf) Construction drawings-These provide dimensions and graphicalinformation a contractor uses to construct on site.
4) Drawingscan be distributed for following purposes:-· For Construction,for measurements, for tender, for information/records· For quotation,for approval/comments, for planning, for As-built, for Engineers review. 5) Process of approvalBeforedrawings can be executed, there are various steps taken to ensure all majorfactors are catered for. The following is the process taken to achieve anapproved plan.1) Reason- the first step before the drawing can be designed is todetermine what needs to be implemented and the purpose of the drawing. Thisallows the determination of costs, calculations etc. to continue. 2) General – this stage all board members and people who going to beinvolved in carrying out responsibilities in the project gather.
Matters suchas costs, duration of the project required, area condition etc. are determined,so that the implementations of drawing ideas can be completed. 3) Drawings as Communication – different ideas are now implemented and are opento be examined. Drawings are sometimes ways of communication, as they interpretone’s thoughts and ideas without uttering a word. A decision is now made, basedon the cost, durability, time etc. Now further detailing of the implementeddrawing can be carried out. 4) Plans – At this stage the drawing is being done, and it should comply toSANS 10144 (SABS 0144), standards.
It is important that when a drawing is donethe site and environmental factors are also taken into consideration. Thedrawing must conform to municipal standard design guidelines. After all thesechecks have been made, and the plans get the approval, it is then used on siteconstruction. 6) Fundamentalsof a drawing 6.1 –LinesInengineering there are many different aspects to a drawing one of which beingthe specific type of line used to represent different parts of an object. Eachline, colour and thickness has its own meaning as seen below: 6.2-Dimensions Theprocess of applying measurements to technical drawings is known asdimensioning. Dimensioning is done by the designer to further document themodel, without changing or controlling features or part size.
Although thereNumerousways of dimensioning styles these are a few focused on in engineering:1) Baselinedimensions2) Ordinatedimensions3) Chaindimensions4) ForeshorteneddimensionsThe above mentioned styles are all found on AutoCad which is adesigning tool for engineers, architects and construction professionals use. 6.3-ScalesPlansare usually “scale drawings”, meaning that the plans are drawn atspecific ratio relative to the actual size of the place or object.
Variousscales may be used for different drawings in a set. An example would be siteplans are often drawn at 1:200 or 1:100. 6.4-Title blockA title block is found on every drawing in a set of drawings thepurpose of the title block is to convey header-type information about thedrawing, such as:-Drawing title (hence the name “title block”)-Drawing number-Part number(s)-Name of the design activity (corporation, government agency, etc.)-Identifying code of the design activity (such as a CAGE code)-Address of the design activity (such as city, state/province,country)-Measurement units of the drawing (for example, inches,millimeters)-Default tolerances for dimension callouts where no tolerance isspecified-Boilerplate callouts of general specs-Intellectual property rights warning Conclusion Forall drawings, before they are started, planning should be made. Matters likecosts, planning, and responsibilities to each person according to his or herduty in the company are taken into consideration. Before the drawings arecertified to be used, they must be approved first. The drawings are followed atall costs on site, unless nature cause requires otherwise.
But it is then takenfor alterations and becomes approved again. References www.structuredcreations.com www.saskatoon.ca www.
zawww.bluedesigns.org DavidVivier, Assistant Resident Engineer (Structural), AECOM SA 2017.IanKemp, Resident Engineer, AECOM SA 2017.SivuyileMkalali, Junior Assistant Resident Engineer (Structural), AECOM SA 2017. SANS 10144 (SABS 0144),Detailing of steel reinforcement for concreteCement and ConcreteInstitute. 2001.
Fulton’s concrete technology 8th edition. South Africa: Cementand Concrete Institute. ClaringtonDesign Guidelines and Standard Drawings 2010 edition PiledFoundation Design and Construction By Ir. Dr.
Gue See Sew