COMPILING is not considered a crime but a serious




outcome 3)

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Name:                        Denisheo Hector

Student Number:   213551195

Company:                 AECOM South Africa

Practical 2 Assignment
























































Plagiarism is the stealing and using of someone
else’s work (language, thoughts, idea or expressions) and using it as one’s own
work. It is presenting someone else’s work without crediting the source,
therefore, committing literary theft. (BETA, 2014) Plagiarism is
considered as academic dishonesty; it can result to penalties or suspension.
Plagiarism is not considered a crime but a serious ethical offense.




























When a tender is awarded to the consultant engineer
by the client to design and manage a project, the consulting engineer designs
and check the designs to his satisfaction, before the drawing can begin. After
the design has been complete and checked, the next phase is the compiling the
drawings to meet the design perimeters.


The conceptual drawings are often derived
from the conceptual design which is established after preliminary
investigation, which involves geotechnical analyses (road profile) and soil
profiling have been completed. These conceptual drawings are often very basic
and are presented in 3 different designs to the client, after the client has
selected one drawing, then a detailed drawing for construction purposes can start.


Drawings are a way of portraying what one has
conceived in one’s mind and bringing it to life for other people to see.
Drawings are used worldwide as a language for the creatives in civil engineering
a certain procedure is taken before a drawing is implemented on site. In this
assignment I have researched drawings as a whole while focusing on construction
drawings also known as working drawings as well as the process the drawing
should undergo and factors that are taken into consideration, before the
drawing can be approved.     



2)    What are
construction drawings?

Construction drawings also referred to as
working drawings, are used by all involved in a project to work on the actual
building of the design. These drawings provide all relevant information, both
graphic and written, about the project. Construction drawings are vital in a
sense that they should be taken care of so that they do not deteriorate before the
end of the project, and that would contributed save costs since there will be
no need for re-printing the drawings copies halfway the project.




3)    Classification
of drawings

are many types of drawings and no particular method of categorizing it, however
drawings are generally classified by the intended purpose of the drawings:    

a) Location drawings/general arrangement drawings-These types of
drawings present the overall composition of an object like a building

b)  Installation drawings-Provides
information to install parts such as ventilation systems

c) Engineering drawings-Technical drawings used to explain the
requirements of engineering components and products

d) Detail drawings-Provide a detail description of geometric form
of an object like a tunnel a bridge or tunnel

e) Design drawings-Used to develop and communicate ideas about a
design in the early stages of a project

f) Construction drawings-These provide dimensions and graphical
information a contractor uses to construct on site.


4)    Drawings
can be distributed for following purposes:-

For Construction,
for measurements, for tender, for information/records

For quotation,
for approval/comments, for planning, for As-built, for Engineers review.


Process of approval

drawings can be executed, there are various steps taken to ensure all major
factors are catered for. The following is the process taken to achieve an
approved plan.

Reason- the first step before the drawing can be designed is to
determine what needs to be implemented and the purpose of the drawing. This
allows the determination of costs, calculations etc. to continue.


General – this stage all board members and people who going to be
involved in carrying out responsibilities in the project gather. Matters such
as costs, duration of the project required, area condition etc. are determined,
so that the implementations of drawing ideas can be completed.


Drawings as Communication – different ideas are now implemented and are open
to be examined. Drawings are sometimes ways of communication, as they interpret
one’s thoughts and ideas without uttering a word. A decision is now made, based
on the cost, durability, time etc. Now further detailing of the implemented
drawing can be carried out.


Plans – At this stage the drawing is being done, and it should comply to
SANS 10144 (SABS 0144), standards. It is important that when a drawing is done
the site and environmental factors are also taken into consideration. The
drawing must conform to municipal standard design guidelines. After all these
checks have been made, and the plans get the approval, it is then used on site


6)      Fundamentals
of a drawing

 6.1 –Lines

engineering there are many different aspects to a drawing one of which being
the specific type of line used to represent different parts of an object. Each
line, colour and thickness has its own meaning as seen below:





process of applying measurements to technical drawings is known as
dimensioning. Dimensioning is done by the designer to further document the
model, without changing or controlling features or part size. Although there

ways of dimensioning styles these are a few focused on in engineering:





The above mentioned styles are all found on AutoCad which is a
designing tool for engineers, architects and construction professionals use.



are usually “scale drawings”, meaning that the plans are drawn at
specific ratio relative to the actual size of the place or object. Various
scales may be used for different drawings in a set. An example would be site
plans are often drawn at 1:200 or 1:100.


6.4-Title block

A title block is found on every drawing in a set of drawings the
purpose of the title block is to convey header-type information about the
drawing, such as:

-Drawing title (hence the name “title block”)

-Drawing number

-Part number(s)

-Name of the design activity (corporation, government agency, etc.)

-Identifying code of the design activity (such as a CAGE code)

-Address of the design activity (such as city, state/province,

-Measurement units of the drawing (for example, inches,

-Default tolerances for dimension callouts where no tolerance is

-Boilerplate callouts of general specs

-Intellectual property rights warning






































all drawings, before they are started, planning should be made. Matters like
costs, planning, and responsibilities to each person according to his or her
duty in the company are taken into consideration. Before the drawings are
certified to be used, they must be approved first. The drawings are followed at
all costs on site, unless nature cause requires otherwise. But it is then taken
for alterations and becomes approved again. 



























Vivier, Assistant Resident Engineer (Structural), AECOM SA 2017.

Kemp, Resident Engineer, AECOM SA 2017.

Mkalali, Junior Assistant Resident Engineer (Structural), AECOM SA 2017.


SANS 10144 (SABS 0144),
Detailing of steel reinforcement for concrete

Cement and Concrete
Institute. 2001. Fulton’s concrete technology 8th edition. South Africa: Cement
and Concrete Institute.


Design Guidelines and Standard Drawings 
2010 edition


Foundation Design and Construction By Ir. Dr. Gue See Sew