Contrastive analysis in generalterm is an inductive investigate approach based on the distinctive elements ina language (Kardaleska, 2006). Contrastive analysis of two languages, L1 andL2, pointing at the specific features of each language system such asphonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax and text analysis or discourseanalysis. Kardaleska also said that those language system helps in the processof anticipation of possible difficulties with L2 learners. A part ofdifficulties can be attributed to the mother tongue interfence. Meanwhile,Geethakumary, in 2006, said that contrastive linguistics has ben redefined as asubdicipline of linguistics concerned with the comparison of two or morelanguages in order to determine both differences and similarities between them. There are some language systemin both Indonesia and English that can be analyzed through contrastiveanalysis. The first in about the idea of plural.
English shows pluralimplicitly by creating pattern how to use –s and –es. But in the other hand,Indonesia shows the form of plural explicitly. There is no rule to indicatethat one thing is plural beside with duplicate it. Indonesia use that wordstwice to show the idea of plural, such as pensil-pensil,mobil-mobil, and many more. The second thing is about the sentencestructure.
Indonesia sentence structure just the use of subject+verb+object oradverb or adjective. But in English, the sentence strucute is little bitcomplicated than one. English uses noun phrase and verb phrase. So the sentencestructure can be like NP+VP or NP+NP. The third thing about languagesystem that can be analyzed through contrastive analysis is the use of passivecontruction.
The pattern of passive isbe+past participle. In Indonesia, passive shows by the use of di- before the verb. The subject referto the doer or the actor of the action verb. So English more focused on thesubject than the object. But in Indonesia, it more focused on the object. Thefourth thing is about subject prominience in English. English always usessubject is every sentence. Subject can be a proper noun, pronoun or something else, but in Indonesia, subject canbe omitted or called zero subject.
The fifth is about terms of address.Indonesia used it to differential people, to show the politeness inconversation to show someone who older than the speaker like Bapak, Ibuk, Anda. But English use youfor all of their interlocutors. The last thing is about the use of “a or the”as article. English used a or the in every noun and have similar meaning.
Indonesia used article in different meaning. The following sentences areexample to show the contrastive analysisamong language elements in Indonesia andEnglish: 1. In Indonesia : Siswa harusmembawa buku.In English : -a student mustbrings books. -students must bring books.
The example shows that the use of –s and –es is important in English.Meanwhile in Indonesia, there is no rules to shows the idea of plural. Besidesthat, to know plural also can see in the using of -s or –es in the thirdperson. 2.
In Indonesia : adik saya pergi ke Jogja tadi malamIn English :my sister went to Jogja last night. (NP+VP)3. In Indonesia : laki-lakiyang tidur semalam disana adalah pacar saya.In English :the man who was sleeping there last night is my boyfriend.The sentence of number 2 and 3 are the example of the usedifferent sentence structure in Indonesia and English.
4. In Indonesia :Makanan itu tidak dimakan oleh para tamu.In English :That food was not eaten by the guest yet.5.
In Indonesia :Wanitatua yang ditemui oleh Rio adalah bibinya.In English :Theold woman whom Rio met was his aunt.But in Indonesia, the sentence also can be said makanan itu tidak para tamu makan or tidakpara tamu makan makanan itu. The second sentence also, in Indonesia can besaid wanita tua yang Rio menemui adalahbibinya. It shows that in Indonesia, the passive contrustion is focusedmore in object not the subject or doer. So the object focus contrustion inIndonesia is called the relative cluases in English.6. In Indonesia : Makanannyamana?In English :Where is the food?7.
In Indonesia :umur berapa?In English :How old are you?In the sentence makananya mana?, there is no subject, yetthe sentence can be understood by Indonesia people. In the sentence where isthe food?, the subject is definite, the subject is it. It also in number 7,thesubject for how old are you is you. 8.
In Indonesia :apakah kamu sudah makan?In English :have you had your meal?9. In Indonesia :apakah bapak/ibu sudah makan?In English :have you had your meal?Indonesian version of number 8 and 9 are similar, but theEnglish version are different. The used of kamu, bapak/ibu are different butEnglish just use you to all their interlocutors. Once again, Indonesia sees theterms of address to show their politeness in conversation.10. In Indonesia :seekor kucingIn English :a cat11. In Indonesia :sebuah mejaIn English :a tableIt shows that articlea can be used in all noun but Indonesia gives different meaning.
Reference :Sagala, Ibrahim. Academia:”A Contrastive Analysis Between English and Indonesian Language I”.