Contrastive with L2 learners. A part of difficulties can

Contrastive analysis in general
term is an inductive investigate approach based on the distinctive elements in
a language (Kardaleska, 2006). Contrastive analysis of two languages, L1 and
L2, pointing at the specific features of each language system such as
phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax and text analysis or discourse
analysis. Kardaleska also said that those language system helps in the process
of anticipation of possible difficulties with L2 learners. A part of
difficulties can be attributed to the mother tongue interfence. Meanwhile,
Geethakumary, in 2006, said that contrastive linguistics has ben redefined as a
subdicipline of linguistics concerned with the comparison of two or more
languages in order to determine both differences and similarities between them.


There are some language system
in both Indonesia and English that can be analyzed through contrastive
analysis. The first in about the idea of plural. English shows plural
implicitly by creating pattern how to use –s and –es. But in the other hand,
Indonesia shows the form of plural explicitly. There is no rule to indicate
that one thing is plural beside with duplicate it. Indonesia use that words
twice to show the idea of plural, such as pensil-pensil,
mobil-mobil, and many more. The second thing is about the sentence
structure. Indonesia sentence structure just the use of subject+verb+object or
adverb or adjective. But in English, the sentence strucute is little bit
complicated than one. English uses noun phrase and verb phrase. So the sentence
structure can be like NP+VP or  NP+NP.

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The third thing about language
system that can be analyzed through contrastive analysis is the use of passive
contruction.  The pattern of passive is
be+past participle. In Indonesia, passive shows by the use of di- before the verb. The subject refer
to the doer or the actor of the action verb. So English more focused on the
subject than the object. But in Indonesia, it more focused on the object. The
fourth thing is about subject prominience in English. English always uses
subject is every sentence. Subject can be 
a proper noun, pronoun or something else, but in Indonesia, subject can
be omitted or called zero subject. The fifth is about terms of address.
Indonesia used it to differential people, to show the politeness in
conversation to show someone who older than the speaker like Bapak, Ibuk, Anda. But English use you
for all of their interlocutors. The last thing is about the use of “a or the”
as article. English used a or the in every noun and have similar meaning.
Indonesia used article in different meaning.


The following sentences are
example  to show the contrastive analysis
among language elements in  Indonesia and


In Indonesia    : Siswa harus
membawa buku.

In English        : -a student must
brings books.

                          -students must bring books.

The example shows that the use of –s and –es is important in English.
Meanwhile in Indonesia, there is no rules to shows the idea of plural. Besides
that, to know plural also can see in the using of -s or –es in the third

2.      In Indonesia    :  adik saya pergi ke Jogja tadi malam

In English        :
my sister went to Jogja last night. (NP+VP)

3.      In Indonesia    : laki-laki
yang tidur semalam disana adalah pacar saya.

In English        :
the man who was sleeping there last night is my boyfriend.

The sentence of number 2 and 3 are the example of the use
different sentence structure in Indonesia and English.

4.      In Indonesia    :
Makanan itu tidak dimakan oleh para tamu.

In English        :
That food was not eaten by the guest yet.

5.      In Indonesia    :Wanita
tua yang ditemui oleh Rio adalah bibinya.

In English        :The
old woman whom Rio met was his aunt.

But in Indonesia, the sentence also can be said makanan itu tidak para tamu makan or tidak
para tamu makan makanan itu. The second sentence also, in Indonesia can be
said wanita tua yang Rio menemui adalah
bibinya. It shows that in Indonesia, the passive contrustion is focused
more in object not the subject or doer. So the object focus contrustion in
Indonesia is called the relative cluases in English.

6.      In Indonesia    : Makanannya

In English        :
Where is the food?

7.      In Indonesia    :
umur berapa?

In English        :
How old are you?

In the sentence makananya mana?, there is no subject, yet
the sentence can be understood by Indonesia people. In the sentence where is
the food?, the subject is definite, the subject is it. It also in number 7,the
subject for how old are you is you.

8.      In Indonesia    :
apakah kamu sudah makan?

In English        :
have you had your meal?

9.      In Indonesia    :
apakah bapak/ibu sudah makan?

In English        :
have you had your meal?

Indonesian version of number 8 and 9 are similar, but the
English version are different. The used of kamu, bapak/ibu are different but
English just use you to all their interlocutors. Once again, Indonesia sees the
terms of address to show their politeness in conversation.

10.  In Indonesia    :
seekor kucing

In English        :
a cat

11.  In Indonesia    :
sebuah meja

In English        :
a table

It shows that article
a can be used in all noun but Indonesia gives different meaning.


Reference        :

Sagala, Ibrahim. Academia:
“A Contrastive Analysis Between English and Indonesian Language I”. acceced on January 15, 2018.