Cuñado controlled. This resulted from the level of confidence

Cuñado and Garcia conducted a study on
the impact of education on happiness in Spain, and found there to be direct and
indirect effects. Income and labor status were a means that was found to be an
indirect effect, as they found that people with higher education levels are
more likely to have “higher income levels and higher probability of being
employed, and thus, report higher levels of happiness.” (Cuñado & Garcia,
2012) The direct effects were found after the variables of income, labor
status, and socio-economic status were controlled. This resulted from the level
of confidence individuals felt from having more knowledge rather than on the
level of education. In a similar finding, Michalos tries
to answer the questions of whether education influences happiness and by how
much, also depending on how one defines the variables of “education,” “influences,”
and “happiness”. Michalos thought that research using these three variables could result
in endless findings, in order to find specific results would rely on “lots of
other things” rather than focusing on the variety of research scenarios.

(Michalos, 2008)

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In another article, Ross and Willigen examined
whether education influences the subjective quality of life and by what means
it affects them. They hypothesized that education did improve well-being, as it
allowed specific individuals to have access to more social and economic
resources. Having access to additional resources would allow individuals to
have a “sense of control over life” that would ideally produce lower levels of
dissatisfaction. (Ross & Willigen, 1997) I found this interesting and
relatable to society today and its’ stigma that one has to go and receive a
higher education in order to succeed in life. When in fact, the reason for more
success by those who attend higher educational institutions is because of the beneficial
resources that result from it.

Ross and Willigen conducted a research using
two data sets from 1990 and 1995 and found that individuals who were well
educated have lower levels of emotional stress, physical distress, however not necessarily
lower levels of dissatisfaction. Once again proving that education provides
additional resources that could lead to a more comfortable life, but not one
that guarantees less dissatisfaction in an individual’s quality of life. I found this to be very
interesting and relatable to another research finding I read by Oreopoulos. His paper evaluated decisions to dropout
of high school versus the results of staying extra years of obligatory
schooling. Oreopoulos concluded that although students who stay the extra years
in school are more likely to have better lifetime outcomes, the decision for dropping
out of high school is more likely made by those who ignore the future
consequences rather than just deciding because of simply disliking school.

(Oreopoulos, 2007) I found these two points to be contrasting as one of the
reasons for dropping out of school could be from reasons such as disliking
school; however, on the other hand, those who go on to receive higher education
could also be dissatisfied by that life. This returns me to my original reason
for conducting this research of: is receiving higher education actually
beneficial to one’s satisfaction of their life and should society place strong
demands for its citizens if it causes unhappiness.

                  Social scientists have recently been
referring SWB (Subjective Well-Being) to be another definition of happiness to
find answers to the question of “how would you say thing are these days – would
you say that you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too happy?” (Noddings,
2003) This approach is challenged by Robert Lane, who stated that “income, education,
health, and intelligence have all increased since World War II, but they have
not made us happier,” which juxtaposes Ross and Willigen’s conclusion of
individuals with more additional resources don’t necessarily have lower levels
of dissatisfaction. Lane’s conclusion juxtaposes Ross and Willigen’s findings
as both believe education provides individuals with a more comfortable life,
but does not promise satisfaction of one’s quality of life. This directly
corresponded with my hypothesis that although achieving a higher number of
degrees would provide individuals with happiness from the benefits of the
additional resources, it is not the definitive reason for an individual’s
satisfaction with their quality of life.