are two reasons for using layered protocols which is that it breaks up the
problem in question smaller and more manageable pieces, as well as that
protocols can be changed more easily without affecting higher or lower layers
possible disadvantage of using layered protocols is the matter of redundancy
and overall lower performance comparatively.
Layer 1— M + h
Layer 2— M + h + h = M + 2h
Layer 3— M + 2h + h = M + 3h
Layer n— M + (n – 1)h + h = M + n x h
# of header bytes with n-layers and h bytes
per header=(n x h). The fraction of the network bandwidth filled with headers
is (n x h)/(M+(n x h)).
The main difference between TCP and UDP would have to be the fact UDP is
connectionless while TCP is specifically connection oriented.
stanford.edu 89 ms 2,518 miles
of California, L.A. ucla.edu
ms 1,747 miles
34.6 ms 428 miles
State University msu.edu
21 ms 255 miles
The findings indeed point to the
correlation between ping time and physical distance
5. The image is 1024 x 768 x 3 bytes or 2,359,296 bytes. This is 18,874,368 bits. Over a 56-kbs(56,000 bits/sec) modem channel, it takes 18,874,368/56,000=337.042 sec. Over a 1-mbs(1,000,000 bits/sec) cable modem, it takes 18,874,368/1,000,000=18.874 sec. Over a 10-mbs(10,000,000 bits/sec) Ethernet, it takes 18,874,368/10,000,000=1.887 sec. Over a 100-mbs(100,000,000 bits/sec) Ethernet, it takes 18,874,368/100,000,000=0.189 sec.