Development the handle of the machine. The machine parts/components

Development of small
injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale
industries1 by Oyetunji.A. This work which entailed design, construction and
test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic
articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it
solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed
and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic
components. Design concept, operation, and assembly of components parts were
made. Also, working drawings and materials selection were made based on
calculations of the diameter of injection plunger, number of teeth required for
the plunger rack and spur gear, the angular velocity, number of revolution,
torque and power obtained from the electric motor selected and the leverage on
the handle of the machine. The machine parts/components were then assembled in
line with the designed made, thereafter the constructed machine was tested
using high density polyethylene and master batch. The results obtained from the
test were satisfactory. The design, construction and testing of the small
injection molding machine had been successfully accomplished. It was observed
and concluded that the Development of Small Injection Moulding Machine for
Forming small articles practicability and efficiency of the machine depends on
strict compliance with the operational procedures of the machine. This work was
designed and constructed for the small-scale production of small plastic
articles. Hence, it can be recommended for small-scale investors that are
willing to produce small plastic articles such as key holders, clothes pegs,
flat rulers, bottle covers/caps and tally.


& Fabrication of Pneumatically Operated Plastic Injection Molding Machine 2
by Poonam G. Shukla, Gaurav P. Shukla.

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 In Pneumatically operated plastic
injection moulding machine moulding operation is done with the help of
compressed air. It is cheaper than hydraulic machine and more efficient as
compared to manual machine. So it solves the problem of small and medium scale
industries very well. In pneumatically operated plastic injection machine two
pneumatic cylinders are used. One for injection of plastic and other for
automatic opening of the die. The finished product is too hot to touch. So
automatic die opening mechanism is required. The advantage of this machine is,
productivity is increased as compared to manual machine, space required is less
as compared to other machine, there is no problem of oil leakage and fire
hazards and the cost is very less as compared to hydraulic machine. In manual
machine there is a problem of automatic removal of product. This problem is
solved in pneumatic machine by using pneumatic cylinder.


PROCESS 3 by J. WHALE, N. FOWKES, G. HOCKING1 and D. HILL-This paper is
concerned with the injection moulding process, in which hot molten plastic is
injected under high pressure into a thin cold mould. Assuming that the velocity
and temperature profiles across the mould maintain their shape, a simple steady
state model to describe the behaviour of a Newtonian fluid during the rilling
stage is developed. Various phenomena of the process are examined, including
the formation of a layer of solid plastic along the walls of the mould, and the
relationship between the flux of liquid plastic through the mould and the
average pressure gradient along the mould. In any given situation, it is shown
that there is a range of pressures and injection temperatures which will give
satisfactory results.


Review of Optimization Aspects
for Plastic Injection Molding Process 4 by Mr Aditya, M. Darekar Prof. T. S.
Venkatesh ,Dr. Bhushan T. Patil and Mr Yazad N. Doctor

Using a conventional
trial-and-error approach for finding out the desired processing conditions for
molding is not good enough to sustain in the global market. Many product
designing, mold designing aspects as well as large number of process parameters
need to be optimized in order to meet customer requirements and expectations
regarding quantity, quality and performance of the product at a competitive
price. This paper aims to provide an insight of literatures about recent
research in optimization aspects for determining optimum process parameters of
plastic injection molding. Because of the complexity of the injection molding
process and involvement of large number of factors related to process settings,
machine settings, product design and tool design, analysis and optimization of
the Plastic Injection Molding becomes challenging. And as a result, many
different tools and techniques have been developed and will be developed in future
to predict the defects in the molding and to optimize different parameters
causing defects more precisely. It can be seen that optimization of plastic
injection molding process using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coupled with
various optimization techniques is more economic and effective way in improving
product quality and reducing manufacturing cost by saving costly trial and
errors during design phase.


A numerical analysis
was carried out to study the effect of the inlet temperature of cooling fluid
on the cooling time in plastic injection moulding. Mold data consists of two
different steel which designed so as to form the two sides of the plastic part.
Water flowing through horizontal cooling channels was used as cooling fluid for
the cooling of the plastic parts. A numerical analysis using a finite volume
approach was carried out. The effect of inlet temperature of cooling water on
the temperature distribution of the parts and the solidification degree of the
parts were investigated. The results indicate that the cooling time in plastic
injection moulding decreased with the inlet temperature of cooling water. The
effects of the inlet temperature of cooling water on the cooling time in
plastic injection moulding had been numerically studied. The results of the
analysis showed that the cooling time could be shortened by reducing the input
water temperature. The minimum cooling time obtained at the inlet water temperature
of 70-600C as 39s and so the solid plastic parts could be removed from the
mould after 39 s, but the stress and deformation analysis must be performed
before choosing the best cooling time. The results also indicated that the
upper surface temperatures decreased up to nearly 30C towards the edge areas of
the parts. The upper surface temperatures of the cavity side of the parts were
bigger than those of bottom surface nearly 10C.

Evaluation of Filling
Conditions in Injection Moulding by Integrating Numerical Simulations6 by R.
Hariharan and R.J. Golden Renjith Nimal

The purpose of this
topic is an integrated approach to evaluate gating system configurations to
optimize the filling conditions of thermoplastic injection moulded parts.
Through data integration between the finite element (FE) analysis and the
Design of Experiment approach, the filling of parts with complex geometries was
studied to optimize injection process parameters and improve the product
quality. The numerical simulation of an injection moulding process allows the
evaluation of the component manufacturability at the early stage of the
development cycle, without fabricating prototypes and minimizing experimental
tests. Normally, the FE analysis interests concerns filling, post-filling and
cooling phases of the injection process. Using the FE system, a deeper
investigation of stress and strain distributions can be performed to predict
defect presence in the final product. However, this methodology is sensitive to
existing differences between property of the real part and of its model
(material, geometry, etc.).

Considering the results
obtained by integrating FE and DOE approaches, the proposed framework can be
enhanced by: (i) promoting more extensive data integration between CAD, FE and experimental
activities, (ii) standardizing the DOE-FEM procedures in order to support
non-skilled operators in the identification of stable processing zone, (iii)
training artificial intelligence systems (e.g. neural networks) that embed
optimization tasks in a real-time system for process control.