Development the handle of the machine. The machine parts/components

Development of smallinjection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scaleindustries1 by Oyetunji.A.

This work which entailed design, construction andtest small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plasticarticles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where itsolidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designedand constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plasticcomponents. Design concept, operation, and assembly of components parts weremade. Also, working drawings and materials selection were made based oncalculations of the diameter of injection plunger, number of teeth required forthe plunger rack and spur gear, the angular velocity, number of revolution,torque and power obtained from the electric motor selected and the leverage onthe handle of the machine. The machine parts/components were then assembled inline with the designed made, thereafter the constructed machine was testedusing high density polyethylene and master batch. The results obtained from thetest were satisfactory. The design, construction and testing of the smallinjection molding machine had been successfully accomplished. It was observedand concluded that the Development of Small Injection Moulding Machine forForming small articles practicability and efficiency of the machine depends onstrict compliance with the operational procedures of the machine.

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This work wasdesigned and constructed for the small-scale production of small plasticarticles. Hence, it can be recommended for small-scale investors that arewilling to produce small plastic articles such as key holders, clothes pegs,flat rulers, bottle covers/caps and tally. Design& Fabrication of Pneumatically Operated Plastic Injection Molding Machine 2by Poonam G. Shukla, Gaurav P. Shukla.  In Pneumatically operated plasticinjection moulding machine moulding operation is done with the help ofcompressed air.

It is cheaper than hydraulic machine and more efficient ascompared to manual machine. So it solves the problem of small and medium scaleindustries very well. In pneumatically operated plastic injection machine twopneumatic cylinders are used.

One for injection of plastic and other forautomatic opening of the die. The finished product is too hot to touch. Soautomatic die opening mechanism is required. The advantage of this machine is,productivity is increased as compared to manual machine, space required is lessas compared to other machine, there is no problem of oil leakage and firehazards and the cost is very less as compared to hydraulic machine. In manualmachine there is a problem of automatic removal of product. This problem issolved in pneumatic machine by using pneumatic cylinder.

 A MODEL OF THE INJECTION MOULDINGPROCESS 3 by J. WHALE, N. FOWKES, G. HOCKING1 and D. HILL-This paper isconcerned with the injection moulding process, in which hot molten plastic isinjected under high pressure into a thin cold mould. Assuming that the velocityand temperature profiles across the mould maintain their shape, a simple steadystate model to describe the behaviour of a Newtonian fluid during the rillingstage is developed. Various phenomena of the process are examined, includingthe formation of a layer of solid plastic along the walls of the mould, and therelationship between the flux of liquid plastic through the mould and theaverage pressure gradient along the mould.

In any given situation, it is shownthat there is a range of pressures and injection temperatures which will givesatisfactory results. Review of Optimization Aspectsfor Plastic Injection Molding Process 4 by Mr Aditya, M. Darekar Prof. T. S.

Venkatesh ,Dr. Bhushan T. Patil and Mr Yazad N. Doctor Using a conventionaltrial-and-error approach for finding out the desired processing conditions formolding is not good enough to sustain in the global market. Many productdesigning, mold designing aspects as well as large number of process parametersneed to be optimized in order to meet customer requirements and expectationsregarding quantity, quality and performance of the product at a competitiveprice.

This paper aims to provide an insight of literatures about recentresearch in optimization aspects for determining optimum process parameters ofplastic injection molding. Because of the complexity of the injection moldingprocess and involvement of large number of factors related to process settings,machine settings, product design and tool design, analysis and optimization ofthe Plastic Injection Molding becomes challenging. And as a result, manydifferent tools and techniques have been developed and will be developed in futureto predict the defects in the molding and to optimize different parameterscausing defects more precisely. It can be seen that optimization of plasticinjection molding process using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coupled withvarious optimization techniques is more economic and effective way in improvingproduct quality and reducing manufacturing cost by saving costly trial anderrors during design phase.AN ANALYSIS OF COOLINGTIME IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING WITH INFLUENCE OF INLET TEMPERATURE OFCOOLING FLUID5 by NUR YEMENICI, AHMETARDAGUNEYA numerical analysiswas carried out to study the effect of the inlet temperature of cooling fluidon the cooling time in plastic injection moulding. Mold data consists of twodifferent steel which designed so as to form the two sides of the plastic part.

Water flowing through horizontal cooling channels was used as cooling fluid forthe cooling of the plastic parts. A numerical analysis using a finite volumeapproach was carried out. The effect of inlet temperature of cooling water onthe temperature distribution of the parts and the solidification degree of theparts were investigated. The results indicate that the cooling time in plasticinjection moulding decreased with the inlet temperature of cooling water. Theeffects of the inlet temperature of cooling water on the cooling time inplastic injection moulding had been numerically studied. The results of theanalysis showed that the cooling time could be shortened by reducing the inputwater temperature.

The minimum cooling time obtained at the inlet water temperatureof 70-600C as 39s and so the solid plastic parts could be removed from themould after 39 s, but the stress and deformation analysis must be performedbefore choosing the best cooling time. The results also indicated that theupper surface temperatures decreased up to nearly 30C towards the edge areas ofthe parts. The upper surface temperatures of the cavity side of the parts werebigger than those of bottom surface nearly 10C.Evaluation of FillingConditions in Injection Moulding by Integrating Numerical Simulations6 by R.Hariharan and R.J. Golden Renjith NimalThe purpose of thistopic is an integrated approach to evaluate gating system configurations tooptimize the filling conditions of thermoplastic injection moulded parts.

Through data integration between the finite element (FE) analysis and theDesign of Experiment approach, the filling of parts with complex geometries wasstudied to optimize injection process parameters and improve the productquality. The numerical simulation of an injection moulding process allows theevaluation of the component manufacturability at the early stage of thedevelopment cycle, without fabricating prototypes and minimizing experimentaltests. Normally, the FE analysis interests concerns filling, post-filling andcooling phases of the injection process. Using the FE system, a deeperinvestigation of stress and strain distributions can be performed to predictdefect presence in the final product. However, this methodology is sensitive toexisting differences between property of the real part and of its model(material, geometry, etc.

).Considering the resultsobtained by integrating FE and DOE approaches, the proposed framework can beenhanced by: (i) promoting more extensive data integration between CAD, FE and experimentalactivities, (ii) standardizing the DOE-FEM procedures in order to supportnon-skilled operators in the identification of stable processing zone, (iii)training artificial intelligence systems (e.g. neural networks) that embedoptimization tasks in a real-time system for process control.