Disadvantages the environment. Although this is improving the distance

DisadvantagesAt the minute there are many disadvantages with hybrid cars.One of them being the Safe use of high voltage batteries, inHybrid cars they use high voltage battery packs, these batteries are relied uponto power just about everything in the car from the Motor to the internal fixturesuch as radio and lights. If the battery was to become faulty it could prove tobe a health and safety risk if the battery becomes “live”, if the car doesbecome “live” and the passenger touches the car and they are touching theground they will become electrocuted.Another disadvantage of hybrids car the predominant relianceon fossil fuels, this is because hybrid cars use energy from the electric motorand the fossil fuelled mechanical engine, this is bad because it means moremoney will still be spend on refiling the mechanical engine with fossil fuelsto burn. Hybrid cars also still produce harmful emissions, which is bad for theenvironment.

Although this is improving the distance that can be reachedon a single charge of the battery is still lower than using a fossil fuelled mechanicalengine to drive the car. This may still be a turn off point for some customerswho were wishing to invest in a hybrid car before finding out the maximumdistance it can go on a full charge.  There is still a huge cost that is involved in owning andrunning a hybrid car, this is because the batteries do not last forever andneed to replace more often than a mechanical engine will need to be replaced.Below I have listed and explained the new advancements intechnology in hybrid vehicles. New Advancements·        Less weightHeavy batteries are the cause of theproblem for many fuel-conscious drivers’, this is because the more weight youhave in your vehicle, the more energy you’ll need to use to move forward.  Many researchers have recognizing thisproblem, and have looked into making hybrid battery packs much lighter, A groupat the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), has found a way to makelithium-ion batteries both lighter and faster.

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The problem with lithium-ionbatteries was their slow release of electrical energy. Scientists who hadtackled this problem had thought lithium atoms were moving too slowly throughthe battery material, The MIT researchers think the problem might be from thenano-scale size of the technology that’s making it difficult for ions totravel. Their solution was to use a lithiumphosphate coating that helps speed ions along, this makes it easier for them toquickly reach the battery terminals. The new battery material also stops thedegrading of the battery packs, which means that manufacturers can keep thesizes of the batteries much smaller than before. This reduction in size willreduce the overall weight. ·        Battery lifeCar companies such as tesla, Toyota andmany others can guarantee that their hybrid battery packs for the life of thecar, which in recent years has been around 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers)or more. And the warranties on the batteries generally last for eight years oreven longer, in some cases.

The battery in the 2010 Toyota Prius, for instance,has a 10-year, 150,000-mile (341,402-kilometer) warranty. ·        New Lead-acid Battery AdvancementsThere have been advancements in the use oflead-acid batteries instead of lithium-ion batteries. This is because althoughlithium-ion batteries are a potential alternative to nickel-metal hydridesystems, they have been proven to be too expensive and unreliable for thoseinterested in hybrid cars. NiMH batteries aren’t necessary cheap, and theirpotential to become cheaper is low. Lead-acid batteries are a solution that hasbeen proposed, this has raised eyebrows because the material (lead) is heavyand is bad for the environment which is the opposite of what customers want. Researchersin Australia and Japan looked into the technology to see what they couldimprove.

The researchers created what is known as the Ultra Battery. The UltraBattery uses super capacitors, which are electric devices that give hybrid carslarge bursts of energy necessary for acceleration without degrading thebattery.The used of this new technology could costmanufactures $1,000 less than the batteries of before. ·        Use of Lithium-ion Battery The majorityof hybrid car battery packs use nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. This isbecause NiMH batteries are a more reliable energy source of energy for hybrids,they have long lives and are inexpensive. Some of the lower-power battery packscan cost as little as $600.

The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is one of thosealternatives. Many people are now familiar with lithium-ion battery technologythrough their use in various electronic devices. For hybrid cars, they offerhigh-power and high energy for their weight and volume, and they’re moreefficient than nickel-metal hydride batteries.The use oflithium-ion Batteries in hybrid cars is still in its development, there arestill some issues with its reliability being unproven, the higher costs oflithium-ion when compared to  costs of nickel-metalhydride (NiMH) batteries, in future development of the batteries it is believedthat they will be smaller and lighter, which is good.It’s still alittle early for lithium-ion technology in hybrid cars — its reliability isunproven, and the cost is higher than that of NiMH technology. If more testingand investment continues, however, you might see smaller and lighterlithium-ion battery packs in hybrid cars very soon.How solar is being used in Hybrid cars     No EmissionsDue to the use of solar panels to provide electrical energy tothe battery, which provides energy to the electric motors, this means there isno burning of fossil fuels. If there is not burning of fuels there will be no emissions,this protects the environment.

This key aspect of solar-powered cars is ofinterest to motorists who wish to utilize personal transportation withoutcontributing to air pollution and greenhouse gases in the environment. Preservation of Natural ResourcesAlthough the panels and other components of a solar-poweredcar initially consume energy and resources to manufacture, a solar poweredhybrid/electric car would require no additional energy input from for instance anengine. The further use and development of solar panels will mean there will bea decrease in the dependency of fossil fuelled motors, with it only to belimited to the lubrication of wheels and other moving parts.No Fuel CostsSunlight, which solar panels convert into electricity, isavailable and free to everyone during the day and because of the decreasedamount of dependency on fossil fuels solar charged cars will be free to run. Theseare considerable economic incentives to develop, produce and operate solarcars.

   Examples of cars with solar panelsCapacitorsThe batteries seem to be the limiting factor in thepopularity of electric cars. This is because they are one of the most expensivecomponents of the vehicle, and have limited range compared to gasoline poweredvehicles. While there have beensome impressive advances in recent years, a team of researchers have created asuper capacitor film that could in the future replace the need for a batteryaltogether within the next five years. This has been achieved by acollaboration between scientists at Rice University and Queensland Universityof Technology resulted in two papers, published in Journal of Power Sources andNanotechnology.In this super capacitor there are two layers of graphenewith an electrolyte layer in the middle.

The film is strong, exceedingly thin,and is able to release a large amount of energy in a short amount of time,which is essential for customers.Super capacitors can offer vehicles extra energy spurt foracceleration this is because of the high power output in a short time, meaninga faster acceleration rate of the car and a charging time of just a fewminutes, compared to several hours for a standard electric car battery. Ordinary batteries such as lead acid and other types take upa large amount of space, whereas the super capacitor film could be integratedinto multiple parts of the vehicle, for example the body panels, roof, floor,and doors.

A super capacitor this large could provide the vehicle with theamount of energy it needs, while making the vehicle itself much lighter.In the future, with further development in this area, it ishoped the super capacitor will be developed to store more energy than a Li-Ionbattery while retaining the ability to release its energy up to 10 times faster- meaning the car could be entirely powered by the super capacitors in its bodypanels, It is hoped that after one full charge, cars of the future should beable to run up to 500km (310 miles) which is the same to a petrol-powered carand more than double the current limit of an electric car.