DNA letter c is used to distinguish between complementary

DNA amplification
can be accomplished at a constant temperature in short time in one step.  test results is among the most important
issues in simplification and generalization of genetic testing The mechanism of
the LAMP reaction is described briefly in Figure (1-13). This method is based
on the use of a specially designed set of four target-specific primers (F3, B3,
FIP and BIP), which are able to recognize six distinct sites flanking the
amplified DNA sequence (F1c, F2c, F3c sites on the 3¢ side and B1, B2, B3 sites
on the 5¢ side (F is for forward and B is for backward directions; the index
letter c is used to distinguish between complementary DNA sequences). One pair
of primers, F3 and B3, represents the ordinary, single-domain primers (they
each recognize one of the six sites and so amplify the entire target region),
and these are supplemented by an additional pair of composite, double-domain
primers, FIP and BIP, which recognize two of the six sites each and play the
major role in the LAMP reactions (FIP and BIP primers are used in excess,
compared to F3 and B3 primers). The LAMP reaction is considered to progress
through two steps by DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity: starting

structure producing
step and cycling amplification step. Production of the starting structure
requires all four primers. At the starting structure-producing step, one of the
inner primers (i.e., FIP) works first, thus initiating the replicative DNA
synthesis by Bst DNA polymerase. Next, the outer primer, F3, takes its place,
displacing the newly synthesized DNA strand and releasing the target DNA. With
similar performance of BIP and B3, this results in the single-stranded dumbbelllike
starting structure withloops at both ends.This DNA construct is a starting
material for the amplification stage
of LAMP, which proceeds with
the participation of the two composite primers only. In this stage, the
starting structure is converted to stem–loop DNA by self-primed DNA synthesis,
and then FIP hybridizes and primes strand displacement DNA synthesis so that
the complement of this structure is produced. It means that the cycle reaction
between two structure is established.

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