During has reduced the cost of collecting, distributing and

During the past few years, use of
information and communication technology has been 

increased. It
became a significant part of government spending in many countries of the
world. Governments around the world recognized the value of technology and used
it. Technology has reduced the cost of collecting, distributing and accessing
information. E-government refers
to the processes and structures that are needed to deliver services to the
public (citizens and businesses), to conduct electronic transactions within an
organization and collaborate with business entities.

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The 2017 e-Government Declaration, issued
by European Ministers at the eGovernment

AP Steering Board
Meeting, outlined a series of joint objectives relating to public services
should be digital-by-default and inclusiveness off citizens, any information
submitted to public administration by citizens and businesses should be only
once, trust & security should be maintained, openness and transparency in
delivery if public services and political decision-making, interoperability by
default. (Eurpeon Union, 2017).

E-government provide more useful ways to manage the
information. Through

citizens participated in government affairs easily because e-government
represented more transparent ways to administered services for public.
E-government services are accessible to all citizens whether they are in remote
areas or in major cities of the country. For example, citizens allowed to vote
in remote areas through online portal.

E-government have created
opportunities for government to increase their efficiency, to

government operations, to increase the participation of citizens, to provide
public services in more transparent manner and to empower the people in
decision-making. Citizen’s attitude plays significant role in the development
of e-government or not. If e-government is not efficient and citizens have no
understanding regarding technology then e-government will be successful or not.
There are different barriers to adopt the e-government services. Citizens are
not enough educated and have not knowledge regarding e-services. Government is
trying to cover the local areas as well as remote areas but it requires cost,
time and good leadership. Citizens are more concerned about their privacy and to
attain citizens’ trust and their confidence is not easy. The purpose of this
study is to examine the citizen’s attitude towards e-government and
e-government is useful to increase the efficiency of public services

This study suggests the importance of
technology in government. This study is

categorized in
different sections. First section describes the importance of e-government. Why
the technology is important for service delivery? Citizens’ attitude is
satisfactory or not regarding technology. Open government needed high cost.
Citizens are taxpayers so, what is the effect of technology on citizens’
attitude? As the business requirements are changing and enabling new systems,
government must consider adopting properly designed efficient e-government.
Second section describes the methodology. Third section describes the findings
and fourth section describes the conclusion and recommendations.

of the study

The objectives are

To determine the attitude of citizens
towards e-government services

To determine that e-government is useful
to increase the efficiency of public services provided by the government.

Significance of the study

E-government provide many useful services. For
example: tax and customs, economic

health care, labor market, social security, agriculture, security,
administrative, judiciary and procurement. This study is helpful to determine
the citizen’s attitude towards e-government. Whether citizen’s attitude plays
significant role in the development of e-government or not. It also elaborates
how e-government works and usefulness of e-government to increase the
efficiency of public services provided by e-government.

Research Questions

This study will answer the following questions:

Is citizen’s attitude satisfactory or not
towards e-government services?

Is the e-government useful in
providing the public services efficiently?

Literature Review

E-government is the use of information
technology and it improves the efficiency of

government services.
This information project system provided electronic services to four types of
customers: citizens, employees, businesses, and organizations. It presents a
way for governments across the world to provide citizens, business and other government
with convenient access to government services and opportunities of
collaboration via Internet and wireless communication technology (Siau &
Long, 2005).
The aim is to increase the
convenience and accessibility of government services and information to citizens,
businesses, and governmental units (Carter & Belanger, 2005). With
that advent of the Internet, e-government initiatives have shifted towards
Web-enabled government, which have largely replaced or augmented traditional
brick and- mortar transactions (Brian, 2010).
E-government provides citizens
with timely and personalized information and services in a more convenient and
easier way, which satisfies users’ multi-level information needs, and helps
users improve efficiency and complete tasks in anytime and anywhere (Wang, 2014). The advancements in information and communication
technology allow governments to customize their services and delivery in
accordance with individual citizens’ preferences or needs (Ho, 2002).

E-government is considered
an important measure for enhancing citizen access to

services and expediting the delivery of services to citizens  (Kim, Kim, & Lee, 2009).
In the past decades,
information transmitted through papers, letters and post. Office work was
manual but today, technology became an important part of our work as well as
our life. Citizens use mobile phone, websites, electronic media for their
facility. There is little doubt that the use of social media is an increasingly
important element in digital government (Bellamy & Campbell, 2015). Public records
became digital. Business became virtual through technology. Digital technologies helped improve government
capability and citizen participation by informing citizens and giving them an
official identity, streamlining processes to reduce discretion, receiving
feedback from service users and improving service provider management through
better monitoring (World Bank, 2016).

As the new
technology appeared, new threats and new viruses also appeared. Citizens’

use of
e-government is less clear, and there is often a gap between e-government
design and reality (Heeks, 2002).
Citizens are not enough educated to
handle that viruses. Hackers have hacked the public information and used it
according to their wish. E-government focused on security and first line threats
on information technology. It is not only citizens who need
educating; online consultations will only be successful if both citizens and
politicians acquire new types of communication skills and modes (Coleman,
Personal identity and the ability to
authenticate and protect it are issues in the design and delivery of
personalized services as well as requirements for electronic commerce and
controlled and trusted access to systems, services, and information (Sharon, 2008).

E-government provision matures a new
category of knowledgeable citizens is emerging;

basic information
is accessed online such that the nature of interaction between citizens and
officials is more of an informed dialogic exchange, potentially enhancing implementers’
role and job content (Kolsaker & Lee-Kelley, 2008). Now transactions are online. Bills are paid through
mobile. Government
portals now provide ‘get involved’ facilities, offering opportunities to
initiate or sign petitions, respond to consultations about policies or plans,
access policy briefings or watch video-feeds of parliamentary debates (Bellamy &
Campbell, 2015).
Social media connected all the
citizens and officials and world became a global village.

Identity card is
computerized and organizations are virtual. Technology has infused in

E-government promotes self-service
through conveniently accessible technologies that connect citizens and
government agencies on a 24/7 basis, with almost no geographical constraints (Gilbert, P. Balestrini, & Littleboy, 2004). E-government is considered as an initiative aimed at
reinventing how the Government works and to improve the quality of interactions
with citizens and businesses through improved connectivity, better access, furnishes
high quality services and better processes and systems (Lean,
Zailani, Ramayah, & Fernando, 2009). Today mobile
phones, websites, global email, laptops and other electronic devices are ubiquitous forms
of communication technology.

E-government means
use of information technology. Through technology create a self-

among citizens and make them informative and educated. The purpose is to make
citizens aware that they handle their affairs themselves. E-government
technology allows citizens to access and use government services without having
to interact with any officers (Chan, et al., 2010). The use of digital media apparently
provides citizens with an unprecedented level of access to the leader of the
free world (Bellamy & Campbell, 2015). E-government
technology supports self-service—i.e., a process by which services are
initiated and executed by citizens themselves without having to interact with
public officials (Globerson & Maggard, 1991), such as filing
income tax or making appointments with a government agency online.

The citizen perspective often seems to
have been forgotten or hidden away in the design

and implementation
processes of e-government solutions so far (Nicholls, Henney, Land, Farbey, & Damodaran, 2005). E-government
rhetorical emphasized on the importance of citizens’ participation. For
example, citizens will participate in democratic process, provided them better
services and information, accountability and transparency of government
services. The success of such
initiatives is dependent not only government support, but also on citizens’
willingness to accept and adopt those e-government services (AlAwadhi
& Morris, 2008).

In many locations, the lack of availability
of computers, internet access, or even

and telecommunications infrastructure are barriers to access (Singh & Sahu, 2008). Indeed,
e-government services cannot improve public service delivery if they are not
used by the public (Panagiotopoulos & Al-Debei, 2010). E-government will improve their services if citizens
use public services, if they have information regarding new technology. Many useful services that e-government has developed
for public are not used by them. They do not know how to use the services. Public
need a third knowledgeable person to use the services because they have no
information. The state must be prepared to provide timely and comprehensive
information as well as channels of communication through which citizens can
express their opinions and engage in debate (Coleman, 2004).

The growth of an online public sphere may
require a reassessment of traditional

conceptions of the
role of the citizen and the nature of government-citizen relations (Lips, 2006). Citizens may desire easy-to-use e-government services
as well as resources that support their use of these services (Chan, et al.,
for exploiting digital technologies also assume that most citizens possess the
resources, understanding, skill and incentives to access electronic services (Bellamy & Campbell, 2015). Mostly citizens
required face to face interaction in using public services. The reason is that
they have not enough knowledge regarding technology and they required a source
who guide them. They are more concerned about their confidential data. If they
did wrong on online system then their privacy may in danger.

Some sophisticated citizens required more
availability of guidance. Americans believe

that e-government
has the potential to improve the way government operates, but they have concerns
about sharing personal information with the government over the internet,
fearing that the data will be misused and their privacy diminished (Lean,
Zailani, Ramayah, & Fernando, 2009). If the individual
perceives an innovation to be inconsistent with his current practice, he would tend
to be more uncertain about the expected benefits of the innovation. (Lean, Zailani, Ramayah, & Fernando, 2009). So, internet may
not always appropriate for undertaking online transactions and accessing
information. It is not easy to judge that this website or this approach is
customer-friendly or a fraud. Data protection law allows and requires both
politicians and public service workers to make judgements (Bellamy &
Campbell, 2015).
To avoid these type of frauds and mistakes data protection law is important,
where the data is required, why it is required, when it is required and how it
will be processed and which process is appropriate.


This study
includes those articles which are related to e-government, efficiency of public

services and citizen’s attitude. Identification
of the studies is through these key words: e-government, digital government, Information
Communication Technology, citizens’ attitude, citizens’ satisfaction and
efficiency of public services. In all, a total of 50 readings were retrieved,
however final 26 appropriate studies were obtained. Journals included in this research

Public Administration & Management

Information Systems Journal

Journal of the Association for Information Systems

Information, Community and Society

International Journal of Public Sector Management

The Information Society

International Journal of Operations and Production Management

Public Administration Review

Government Information Quarterly

The Electronic Journal of e-Government

Internet, Politics, Policy

Computers in Human Behavior

13.  Telematics and Informatics

14.  Journal of Strategic Information Systems

Journal of Industrial Management
& Data Systems


The findings
of this review will answer these two questions: Is
citizen’s attitude

satisfactory or not
towards e-government services? And Is the e-government useful in providing the
public services efficiently?

is useful or not

Overall, this review highlights that e-government is useful
to increase the efficiency of

services. In recent years, ICT became an essential part of government. Information and technology go hand in hand and are
crucial to government’s ability to be better informed in its decision-making,
build stronger financial management and drive more cost-effective delivery (Morse, 2011). Government is using
wed based technologies to deliver the services. Through technology, efficiency
of services, interaction between citizens and government, accountability and
transparency has increased, and corruption and cost has been reduced.  

Technology brings
closer citizens to the government. Citizens more engaged in decision-

and actively engaged in elections and political decisions. Digital technologies
act as a mediator between government and citizens. E-government services are
accessible 24/7 and in local and remote areas. Now mostly office work is online
like online transactions, payment of bills and voting etc. Every organization
has its own website. Many organizations became virtual and they are doing
business through online system. ICTs offer an opportunity to bring
organizations and citizens closer together, enhancing and facilitating communication
and to reorganization (Berra, 2003). Information system
create interactive relations between citizens and government through ICT. As the world is changing, technology is advancing.
Mostly citizens find it useful because now everything is in their hand and they
can do transactions and their work online easily. It saves their time.

Governments have
been committed to provide better services to citizens.
Internet users

maintain community
ties through both virtual and face-to-face interaction (Hampton, Keith, & Wellma, 2000). It is promoting the
access to the internet and mobile phone
extensions, 3G and 4G coverage for rural areas. But it is still hard work
required to achieve the universal coverage. On the other side, government has
been devoted effort to encourage the citizens to get online services. If more
public use electronic services and digital technology then e-government will be

Citizen’s attitude towards

Another point,
this review highlights is that citizens’ attitude towards e-government is

Technology is helpful in daily work. Citizens acknowledge that online work is
more efficient and quick. It empowers the citizens through access and
information. E-government provide services efficiently but on the other hand,
government is ignoring this perspective that understanding of new technology is
also important. If citizens do not use these services then e-government is not
become successful. Citizens are more concerned about their confidential data
and their privacy. Trust and confidence of citizens is more important.

E-government is
useful in providing services but it requires time, training, consultation,

and leadership. Citizens as well as politicians need to understand the new
technology, how to adopt it and use it. The adoption of technology depends upon
trustworthiness. Trustworthiness is also
defined as the perception of confidence in the electronic marketer’s
reliability and integrity (Belanger, Hiller, & Smith, 2002). If senior adopt a
service and find useful then junior will use that service. Mostly citizens,
that have no understanding and knowledge, they preferred that services which
are used by another person. Some sophisticated citizens do not satisfy
otherwise. Mostly citizens, which has no basic understanding, they involved a
third person who resolve their affairs. So, they did not find new technology

avoid the fraud and mistake, data protection law is established and followed.
Identity management is a big issue. Data matching exercises are undertaken to
find the criminal and to detect the fraud.


The purpose of this study is to
determine the efficiency of public services provided by e-

government and citizens’ attitude towards e-government. Based on literature
review, this study analyzes some findings and based on findings, this study draws
some conclusions.

Electronic government is efficient
and provide better services than traditional

government. Businesses became virtual and self-aware. Citizens are more
engaged in public affairs. They can access services easily and quickly. Through
technology, world became a global village. Mobile phones, social websites and
e-mails are ubiquitous forms of communication technology. Government is trying
to encourage the citizens to use services online as well as provide them better
internet facility. It enhances the public awareness regarding technology. Government
is making effort to motivate the citizens and businesses regarding their needs.

On the other hand, citizens attitude
is moderate. Mostly citizens using e-services but un-

educated citizens, who have no understanding of technology, they are
more concerned about their privacy. They are not satisfying to make
transactions online. They have not enough knowledge how to do it and they need
a third person for their affairs. Internet is not always appropriate for
accessing information. Sometime, citizens required face to face interaction.
Government has been taking many actions to avoid mistakes and to detect the fraud.