Ear infections one of the most frequent reasons that parents take their children to the doctor. The usual type of ear infection is called otitis media it’s caused by tenderness and disease of the middle ear, and is located positioned behind the eardrum. An acute infection of the ear develops quickly and is painful.The ear is the organ where the sense of hearing and balance are found. Anatomically it is divided into three parts: External ear: formed by the auricular pavilion (ear) and the external auditory canal; Middle ear; constituted mainly by the chain of bones (anvil, hammer, and stirrup); and Internal ear: constituted by the snail and the semicircular ducts. There are three classifications of ear infections, each with their own time frame and their respective antibiotics used to treat each otitis media. On average a middle ear infection lasts approximately two to five days. Middle ear infections tend to fade on their own, in some cases fluid may remain in the middle ear for up to six weeks prior to treatment with antibiotics. The fluid remaining in the middle ear is caused because of inflammation, and because of the dysfunction and the noninfectious blockage of the eustachian tubes.The fluid may not cause pain or can reduce or distort hearing in both ears at the same time. The liquid lasts for a long time or returns again and again, although there is no infection. Most middle ear infections heal within two to five days and do not need any specific treatment (NIH Publication, 2013).External ear infection, also known as swimmer’s ear, can cause irritation, and infection, and it usually alleviates within seven to ten days. An external ear infection can occur from swimming because of the bacteria that are commonly found in water. Rarely the infection can be caused by a fungus, it is mostly caused by bathing, swimming, or simply from water left inside your ears. By having an external ear infection, ear discharge can build up and have a yellow, yellowish green color, and a foul-smelling odor, itching or hearing loss. Earache is the principal signs of an ear infection especially when you’re lying down. There are also more symptoms to notice they are fever, trouble sleeping, severe headache, feeling more irritable than usual, and draining liquid from the ear (kids health 2018).Internal ear infections are viral and less common they happen mostly around the eardrum and are mostly caused by bacteria. This can typically last from one to six weeks. These germs mostly result in other illnesses such as the flu, a cold or allergies that cause overcrowding and inflammation of the nostrils, throat and eustachian tubes.Otitis is usually painful due to inflammation and fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Internal ear infections are viral, but not contagious, it is not as easy to get an internal ear infection due to the fact that it is deep into the ear. Otitis media can affect boys more than it can girls.This type of infection results because of a dysfunction of the tubes because of the connection between the middle ear and the throat. On the other hand, when the tubes work correctly, it lets air into the middle ear, and the discharge from the middle ear flows out. (Zieve, 2016). Even though most of the ear infections can treat themselves, there are some of the most recommended antibiotics or over the counter medications, people can take to alleviate pain or any other discomfort. Although if the ear infection is caused by a virus the ear infection will not be cured.The antibiotics clindamycin is used to stop the growth of bacteria and it will stop the bacteria from expanding all over and causing more complications to the other parts of the ear.It has several side effects, these are some of the most common which are diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea(WEBMD, 2018). In addition, this other antibiotic Amoxicillin helps treat ear infections as well, only if they are not caused by a virus which means that it will only treat ear infections caused by bacteria. The side effects of these antibiotics are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, yellow eyes, or skin, bruising, darkened urine, and sore throat. Penicillin is an antibiotic used to treat wide varieties of bacterial infections. The complications one could have caused by this antibiotic are an upset stomach, mouth sores, and joint or muscle pain (WEBMD, 2018).Erythromycin can be used to prevent infections, if you might have the symptoms or you want to prevent having an ear infection, this medication needs to be taken by mouth with or without food depending on the instructions received from your doctor. Erythromycin can also have side effects, such as loss of appetite, stomach pain and or cramping, dark urine, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, and hearing loss (WEBMD, 2018).Cephalexin is used to slow and stop the bacteria from growing and avoids the bacteria from constructing the cell wall that circles each cell. Vancomycin is a severe bacterial treatment, which stops the growth of bacteria.It is not effective for viral infections. This medication is usually given intravenously. The side effects of the medication are a pain, erythema(redness), and tenderness, dizziness, muscle spasms/pain in the back or chest. (WEBMD, 2018).
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