FIFTYKEY THINKERS ON HISTORY 1. THUCYDIDESWho is the historian?Thucydides (c.
400 B.C.) was bornin the Athenian suburb of Halimos around 460 B.C and was in Athens during the plague of c.430 B.C.
He was one of the greatest ancient historians and author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the struggle between Athens and Sparta in the5th century BC. His work was the first recorded political and moral analysis of a nation’s war policies. The influences of the historian Thucydides’ History has hadan influence on both ancient and modern historiography. It wasembraced by the author’s contemporaries and immediate successors withenthusiasm; many authors sought to complete the unfinished history. Threehistorians all began their histories of Greece where Thucydides left off. The historical view of the historianMost historians:The reception of Thucydides focuses on the questionof who was reading Thucydides and what exactly they were reading.Reinterpretation is about the way that Thucydides was understood as a writerand an authority.
To historians, for example, he is a vital source for ancientGreek history, but has also been seen as a model for history-writing ingeneral; to political theorists, however, he is a pioneering political theorist,and the originator of ‘realist’ approaches to understanding political life. Thefinal project theme then considers Thucydides’ influence on the modern world,the impact of these different conceptions of his work in fields such asInternational Relations and military education. English philosopher; Thomas Hobbs:Believed Thucydides used inveted speeches to conveyhis doubts about democracy Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings Believedhe was didligent in his researchHetells us how he wrote his speeches Heused speeches not only ‘keeping as close as possible to the overall sense’ butmore: he used his speeches to explain the motives and ambitions of individualsand states but also to draw out important themes. 2. LIVYWho is the historian?Livy(TitusLivius) born 59/64 BC, in Padua, Italy and is one of the three greatRoman historians. His history of Rome became a classicin his own lifetime and exercised a profound influence on the style andphilosophy of historical writing down to the 18th century.
Littleis known about Livy’s life and nothing about his family background. Livybegan by composing and publishing in units of five books, the length of whichwas determined by the size of the ancient papyrus roll. The influences of the historian Until Livy’s death, he wrote on his History ofRome from its foundation. The historical view of the historian – Emperor GaiusCaligula dubbed him ‘a verbose and careless historian’- To him history should notjust inform the reader but elevate him as well – what some saw as moraleducation.
– Unfortunately, many of thosehistorians who followed him criticized him for not being an original researcherand called him careless for not verifying many of his facts. While he usedseveral of the sources available at the time, he was dismissed as being merelya writer and not a true academic. Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings 3. GREGORY OF TOURSWho is the historian?- TheFrankish bishop and historian St. Gregory of Tours (538-594) was a Christianleader who wrote a valuable history of the Franks.- Theson of a prominent family in the territory of the Arverni in south-centralFrance, Gregory was born on Nov.
30, 538- He produceda history of the Frankish people which, despite its being overly long andcrudely written, has become the principal source of knowledge about thehistory, language, religion, and social customs of that people. Gregory wrotefrom a partisan, Christian point of view, excusing the crimes of those kingswho favored the Church and pointing out the defects in the others. The influences of the historian It was to this background that Gregory owed much ofhis success, and which allowed him to write the works, including ten books ofhistory usually referred to as the History of the Franks, whichhave made him such a prominent figure in modern scholarship on the Middle Ages.
The historical view of the historian his voice as been a rich source of knowledge forhistorians seeking to understand how his world of Roman aristocrats andFrankish kings functioned, how Christianity spread among pagans, and how thesuccessor dynasty–the Carolingians–came to power. Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings 4. G.W.F HEGEL Who is the historian?Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770 – 1831) was a German philosopherof the early Modern period.
He was a leadingfigure inthe German Idealism movementin the early19th Century.Hegel published onlyfour main books duringhis life: Hegel was the first major philosopher to regard history andthe Philosophy of History asimportant. The influences of the historian His influence has been immense,both within philosophy and in the other sciences, and he came to have a profoundimpact onmany future philosophical schools (whether they supported or opposed hisideas), not the least of which was the Marxism of Karl Marx whichwas to have so profound an effect on the political landscape of the 20thCentury. The historical view of the historian T. Malcolm Knox?- political thinkers turned to the study of Hegel, particularly his politicalworks but also his Logic,because of their influence on Marx.
By the time of his bicentennial in 1970, aHegelian renaissance was under way. Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings 5. E.H CARR Who is the historian?Edward Hallett Carr, (born June 28,1892, London, England was a British political scientist and historian specializingin modern Russian history. The influences of the historian & The historical view of thehistorian Carr is recognised as ahistorian of Modern European history, Soviet History and International,contemporary history. Carr’s work emphasised the role of the state, power, andthe structure of the international system whilst some of his work also promotedradical social, economic and foreign policy reform which overlaps with aspectsof Liberal and Marxist ideology.
Carr’s what is history?, has had a clear impact in theworld of education, since it has long been read by students. Professor AlunMunslow review of What is History?, suggests that ‘the centralideas in the book constitute today’s mainstream thinking on British historicalpractice’.2 The book displays the importance ofthe relationship between the historian and the past.John Tosh, describes Carr’s book as “stillunsurpassed as a stimulating and provocative statement by a radically inclinedscholar”Furthermore, there are critics towards E. H Carr and hisapproach to history. Professor Richard J Evans, in The Two Faces of E.
H Carr describes Carr as two differentpeople. What is History?, is written by Carr the Journalist, whilst A history of Soviet Russia waswritten by Carr the Bureaucrat. Carrbeen perceived as the eternal outsider, since he lacked any particular ideologicalor moral opinion. Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings 6. A.J.
P TAYLORWho is the historian? A.J.P. Taylor (Alan John Percivale Taylor) was born March 25, 1906, Birkdale in Lancashire (died Sept.7, 1990, London). He was a British historianwho specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
He also was ajournalist noted for his lectures on history and for his prose style. The influences of the historian A.J.P. Taylor did not leadan eventful life in the sense of doing much beyond talking and writing – yethis influence as a professional historian and as a journalist, particularly inthe new medium of television, was such as to make it understandable that peopleshould want to know about him As if all this was notenough, Taylor made an allied reputation as a television star – with the rareability to lecture direct to camera and without notes (as in his Oxfordlectures) for a full half-hour. No one else has done such lecturing except onlocation or with other visual aids The historical view of the historian His combination of academic rigour and popularappeal led the historian Richard Overy todescribe him as “the Macaulay of ourage” From its first publicationin 1961, A.
J.P Taylor’s book, The Origins of the Second World War hasbeen at the heart of controversy because of his unorthodox treatment of Hitler’scontribution to the outbreak of war. Key to Taylor’s study is the propositionthat Hitler, should not be charged with complete blame for the war, as if anycountries were in error, it was the allied countries like Britain and France,rather than Germany alone, that were more at fault.
1 Hitler, Taylor argues, did not aim or plan for war,he simply took opportunities, and was in fact an ordinary statesman of theperiod, in the same mould as both his predecessors and contemporaries. WhereHitler had territorial aims or expansionary goals, many of these werejustified, as in Taylor’s view Germany had a basic, intrinsic right to much ofthe territory in her region. It is in the framework of these general argumentsthat Taylor clearly supports the inference that WWII was in many aspects aresumption of the WWI conflict.
In Taylor’s eyes, WWII was “… a war which hadbeen implicit since the moment the first war ended.”3 Hughes Warrington view of the historian and their writings 7. ERIC HOBSBAWMWho is the historian?Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9June 1917 – 1 October 2012) born in Egypt, was a British Marxist historianof the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.His best-known works include his trilogy about what he called the “long 19thcentury”, The Age of Extremes on the short 20th century, and an edited volume thatintroduced the influential idea of “invented traditions”.
The influences of the historian EricHobsbawm was one of the leading historians of the 20th century, perhaps evenmore highly regarded outside than inside the British Isles. He was a Marxistthroughout his adult life and a member of the Communist Party for most of it,but his influence as an historian and political thinker far transcended thoseallegiances. He was a major figure in the creation of the discipline of socialhistory, and the Age of… trilogy introduced and illuminated modern Europeanhistory to a wide audience. In the 1990s he became, perhaps somewhat to hissurprise, one of the major intellectual influences on Neil Kinnock and later onNew Labour.
The historical view of the historian Eric Hobsbawm reflects uponthe theory, practice and development of history and its relevance to the modernworld. Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings 8. MICHEL FOUCAULT Who is the historian?Paul-Michel Foucault (15October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian ofideas, social theorist, and literary critic. Foucault’s theories primarilyaddress the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they areused as a form of social control through societal institutions. His thought has influencedacademics, especially those working in sociology, culturalstudies, literary theory and criticaltheory.
Activist groups have also found his theories compelling. The influences of the historian Michel Foucault was a majorfigure in two successive waves of 20th century French thought–thestructuralist wave of the 1960s and then the poststructuralist wave. By thepremature end of his life, Foucault had some claim to be the most prominentliving intellectual in France.Foucault’s work istransdisciplinary in nature, ranging across the concerns of the disciplines ofhistory, sociology, psychology, and philosophy. The historical view of the historian Hughes Warrington view of the historianand their writings