Globally large scale retrospective study enrolled in Korea showed

Globally
it is estimated that 11% of total child births are born from adolescents (3). A study employed in 29 countries, low and middle
income countries, revealed that the magnitude of teenage pregnancy rate in
Africa, South America & the Caribbean and Asia was 35.1%, 35.5% and 11.5%,
respectively (8). A year later,
another facility based cross sectional study employed in 359 health facilities
of the world stated that 10.3% of deliveries were to adolescents aged 10 -19
years old (10). A comparative
retrospective study done in Turkey implied that teenage pregnancy rate was 8.1%
(16). A large scale
retrospective study enrolled in Korea showed the least adolescent pregnancy
rate 0.5% (17). Likewise
studies employed in Italy also revealed lesser teenage pregnancy rate than
other countries (9) . In contrast
to this a hospital based cross sectional study in Mexico showed higher
adolescent pregnancy rate, 34% (18). When we came
to Africa in Nigeria the prevalence was 1.67% (15). Studies held
in Yaoundé hospital, Cameroon and Egypt revealed that the prevalence of
adolescent pregnancy was 9.3% & 19.8%, respectively (6),(19). Cross
sectional study done in Assosa general hospital, Ethiopia showed that the
prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 20.4% 
(20).

2.2. Adverse
perinatal outcomes

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A
case control study done in North India outlined that babies of adolescent
mothers were 1.65 times more likely to be born prematurely and 1.6 times more
likely to be born with low birth weight. Nevertheless, this study also
concluded that there was no statistically significant association on the risks
of stillbirth (21). In another
study done in Turkey strikingly, adolescent mothers were 4.94 times more likely
to face IUFD and 2.7 times more probable to have premature babies than adult
mothers. However, preeclampsia was 50 % less likely to occur in adolescent
mothers. (22).

Retrospective
 cohort study conducted in Taiwan showed
that teenagers were 1.58 times more likely to had preterm
delivery and 1.2 times more likely to had fetal
distress than that of the adults (23). Similarly retrospective
cohort study which was done in USA revealed that young teenagers and old
teenagers were 1.36 and 1.16 times more likely to had preterm
delivery than the adults respectively(24). And also study done in Korea shows
that teenagers were 2.47 times more likely to experience
preterm delivery (25). Furthermore
study in Sweden showed that there were 
no significant difference between teenage and adult to had preterm delivery(AOR 1.03,95% CI;0.98-1.09) and still birth (AOR 0.97, 95%CI, 0.75-1.5) (26). Study in Nepal
depicted that (20% Vs 7 %, p=0.018) to had preterm delivery
than the adult. Low birth weight in
teenagers and adults were 24% Vs 9% (p=0.013) but this study showed fetal distress was not statistically significant in
two age groups(8% Vs 3%, p==0.178)(27). And also study
done in Ankara (Turkey) which was referral
hospital revealed that teenagers deliver 4.14 times more likely prematurely than adults (28)

Institutional
based cross sectional study done by World Health Organization on multi country
showed that adolescents 1.32 times more likely to give
still birth than the adult mothers. The risk of low birth weight was 1.17 times
higher among early adolescent mothers, compared with adults. The risk of
preterm deliveries was 1.60 times higher among
adolescent mothers as compared with adults. Adolescent mothers had 1.56 times
more likely to had neonatal severe conditions than
that of the adults(10).

Cross
sectional study done in Cameron revealed that teenagers were 2.8 times more
likely to deliver low birth weight neonates than that of the adults and preterm babies
(0.05)(32). Similar to this, study done in Ankara, Turkey
revealed that pregnancy induced hypertension (p=0.31) and PPH (p=0.38) were not
statistically significant with maternal age (28).

 

Institutional
based, cross sectional study done by World Health Organization on multi country
showed that adolescents undergo 23% less likely of cesarean section than that
of adult mothers. Furthermore adolescent mothers had a lower risk of preeclampsia
which was 27% less likely than adult mothers. However the risk of eclampsia was
1.55 times more likely among adolescent mothers
compared with adult mothers(10).

 

A
large scale retrospective cohort study in Sweden concluded that teenagers were
30% less likely to develop PPH, 63% less probable to be complicated by APH
secondary to  placenta previa & 57%
less likely experience grade 3 & 4 perineal tears. However this study
concluded that age was not significantly associated with risk of preeclampsia (33). In contrast to
this study done in India stated that there were no statistically significant
difference between teenage and adult mothers with the occurrence of APH  and PPH(21). Retrospective  register based study which was conducted in
Finland showed that teenagers are 1.2, 3.2 times more likely to develop
preeclampsia and eclampsia than the adults (34). A
retrospective cohort study in Romania showed that teenagers were 1.42 times
more likely to develop PPH and episiotomy (p