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Aim:To
implement case study of GSM.

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Introduction:
GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication.In 1983, work
began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice
telecommunications when the (CEPT)up the Groupe Spécial Mobile
committee and later provided a permanent technical-support group
based in Paris. Five years later, in 1987, 15 representatives from 13
European countries signed a memorandum in Copenhagen to develop and
deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, and EU rules
were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard.The GSM system is the
most widely used cellular technology in use in the world today. It
has been a particularly successful cellular phone technology for a
variety of reasons including the ability to roam worldwide with the
certainty of being able to be able to operate on GSM networks in
exactly the same way – provided billing agreements are in place.

Features:

1.
International roaming.

2.
Compatibility with integrated services digital network (ISDN)

3.
Support for new services.

4.
SIM phonebook manangement.

5.Call
Forwarding.

6.Call
waiting

7.Display
of number
Block
diagram of GSM

Various
components of GSM

1.Mobile
Station
Mobile
stations (MS), mobile equipment (ME) or as they are most widely
known, cell or mobile phones are the section of a GSM cellular
network that the user sees and operates. In recent years their size
has fallen dramatically while the level of functionality has greatly
increased. A further advantage is that the time between charges has
significantly increased.There are a number of elements
to the cell phone, although the two main elements are the main
hardware and the SIM.The hardware itself contains the main elements
of the mobile phone including the display, case, battery, and the
electronics used to generate the signal, and process the data
receiver and to be transmitted. It also contains a number known as
the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). This is installed
in the phone at manufacture and “cannot” be changed. It is
accessed by the network during registration to check whether the
equipment has been reported as stolen.The SIM or Subscriber Identity
Module contains the information that provides the identity of the
user to the network. It contains are variety of information including
a number known as the International Mobile Subscriber Identity
(IMSI).

2.
The Base Station Subsystem
The
Base Station Subsystem (BSS) section of the GSM network architecture
that is fundamentally associated with communicating with the mobiles
on the network. It consists of two elements:

Base Transceiver Station
(BTS): The BTS used in a GSM network comprises the radio
transmitter receivers, and their associated antennas that transmit
and receive to directly communicate with the mobiles. The BTS is the
defining element for each cell. The BTS communicates with the
mobiles and the interface between the two is known as the Um
interface with its associated protocols.

Base
Station Controller (BSC): The BSC forms the next stage back
into the GSM network. It controls a group of BTSs, and is often
co-located with one of the BTSs in its group. It manages the radio
resources and controls items such as handover within the group of
BTSs, allocates channels and the like. It communicates with the BTSs
over what is termed the Abis interface.

3.
Mobile Equipment (ME)

There
are number of mobile equipment being used for this architecture.
These can be dispositive portable, mounted on vehicle, held in the
hand. Every device has the sound only identified from a IMEI. These
mobile devices are responsible for voice and data transmission
simultaneously. It works at power level 0.8 – 20 W.

4.Home
Location Register (HLR)

A
HLR contains given customer as given of account, account position;
the preferences customer, devices have undersigned with to the
customer, the current situation of the customer, etc the data
conserved in HLR for the several types of nets are similar but they
differ in some details.This database contains all the administrative
information about each subscriber along with their last known
location. In this way, the GSM network is able to route calls to the
relevant base station for the MS. When a user switches on their
phone, the phone registers with the network and from this it is
possible to determine which BTS it communicates with so that incoming
calls can be routed appropriately. Even when the phone is not active
(but switched on) it re-registers periodically to ensure that the
network (HLR) is aware of its latest position. There is one HLR per
network, although it may be distributed across various sub-centres to
for operational reasons.

5.Visitor
Location Register (VLR)

A
VLR is a disc, similar to a HLR, that it is used by the nets you
furnish to the profiles of taken of temporality for the customers
(those are out of their central field). These data of VLR are low on
the searched data customer of a HLR.This contains selected
information from the HLR that enables the selected services for the
individual subscriber to be provided. The VLR can be implemented as a
separate entity, but it is commonly realised as an integral part of
the MSC, rather than a separate entity. In this way access is made
faster and more convenient.

6.Authentication
Center (AUC)

AUC
look after not in favor of robber or thief during air interface. It
keeps the authentication keys and granted the security triplets. It
is normally linked with the HLR.

7.Equipment
Identity Register (EIR)

GSM
MS is possible to operate any valid GSM SIM. An opportunity exists
for black market and stolen equipment. To combat this problem EIR is
introduce and track such equipment.The EIR is the entity that
decides whether a given mobile equipment may be allowed onto the
network. Each mobile equipment has a number known as the
International Mobile Equipment Identity. This number, as mentioned
above, is installed in the equipment and is checked by the network
during registration. Dependent upon the information held in the EIR,
the mobile may be allocated one of three states – allowed onto the
network, barred access, or monitored in case its problems.

8.Main
Switching Center (MSC)

The
center of main commutation is the heart of the net. The communication
between the GSM and of other nets controls. Draft the function of
system of call and the commutation, the advance of call, the
information of invoicing and the collection of base. It is also plays
important role in GSM architecture.The main element within the core
network area of the overall GSM network architecture is the Mobile
switching Services Centre (MSC). The MSC acts like a normal switching
node within a PSTN or ISDN, but also provides additional
functionality to enable the requirements of a mobile user to be
supported. These include registration, authentication, call location,
inter-MSC handovers and call routing to a mobile subscriber. It also
provides an interface to the PSTN so that calls can be routed from
the mobile network to a phone connected to a landline. Interfaces to
other MSCs are provided to enable calls to be made to mobiles on
different networks.

Services
provided by GSM

GSM
offers much more than just voice telephony. Contact your local GSM
network operator to the specific services that you can avail.
GSM
offers three basic types of services:

Telephony services or
teleservices

Data services or bearer services

Supplementary
services

Teleservices
The
abilities of a Bearer Service are used by a Teleservice to transport
data. These services are further transited in the following ways:

Voice
Calls

The
most basic Teleservice supported by GSM is telephony. This includes
full-rate speech at 13 kbps and emergency calls, where the nearest
emergency-service provider is notified by dialing three digits.

Videotext
and Facsmile

Another
group of teleservices includes Videotext access, Teletex
transmission, Facsmile alternate speech and Facsmile Group 3,
Automatic Facsmile Group, 3 etc.

Short
Text Messages

Short
Messaging Service (SMS) service is a text messaging service that
allows sending and receiving text messages on your GSM mobile phone.
In addition to simple text messages, other text data including news,
sports, financial, language, and location-based data can also be
transmitted.

Bearer
Services

Data
services or Bearer Services are used through a GSM phone. to receive
and send data is the essential building block leading to widespread
mobile Internet access and mobile data transfer. GSM currently has a
data transfer rate of 9.6k. New developments that will push up data
transfer rates for GSM users are HSCSD (high speed circuit switched
data) and GPRS (general packet radio service) are now available.

Supplementary
Services

Supplementary
services are additional services that are provided in addition to
teleservices and bearer services. These services include caller
identification, call forwarding, call waiting, multi-party
conversations, and barring of outgoing (international) calls, among
others. A brief description of supplementary services is given here:

Conferencing
: It allows a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty
conversation, i.e., a simultaneous conversation between three or
more subscribers to setup a conference call. This service is only
applicable to normal telephony.

Call
Waiting : This
service notifies a mobile subscriber of an incoming call during a
conversation. The subscriber can answer, reject, or ignore the
incoming call.

Call
Hold : This
service allows a subscriber to put an incoming call on hold and
resume after a while. The call hold service is applicable to normal
telephony.

Call
Forwarding : Call
Forwarding is used to divert calls from the original recipient to
another number. It is normally set up by the subscriber himself. It
can be used by the subscriber to divert calls from the Mobile
Station when the subscriber is not available, and so to ensure that
calls are not lost.

Call
Barring : Call
Barring is useful to restrict certain types of outgoing calls such
as ISD or stop incoming calls from undesired numbers. Call barring
is a flexible service that enables the subscriber to conditionally
bar calls.

CONCLUSION:
Hence
we have studied and understood the various features,components and
the servives provided by GSM.