Historical individuals differ from each other, as a result

Historical overview·            
Pre-darwin – evolutionary
thought, the concept that species change over time has its roots in antiquity o  
Thales – the base was watero  
Empodecoles – life evolved owing
to a combination of random variation and some kind of intergenerational
selective process; bodily organs coming together, ex: the minatur, the
”fittest” survived and in this way eventually human beings and genders
Airstotle – scala naturae: a
natural hierarchy order of lifeo  
Erasmus Darwinf: also believed
that there was a common ancestor, additionally the existence of competition. He
was not clear about causation, he did not have an explanation of what led to
that change·            
Lamark – : changes in the
environement will change behaviour. He believed also that such as organ changes
throughout life would be heritable, which is wrong. Because the offspring would
only have a chance of being affected if it is in the gene.·            
Darwin – natural selection,
individuals differ from each other, as a result of differences, some are better
adapted than others (in the context of competing resourses)o  
Design: the body that is
adapted for easier and more efficient survivalo  
Natural selection:
heritability, variation, differential reproductive success (peppered moth)o  
Genetic mutation: an alteration
in the gene A gene mutation is a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that
makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most
Darwin failed to specify how
inheritance worked – opted for blend model, any favourable characteristics that
arose would be diluted over generations. So, how could selective o  
We cannot predict what the off
spring will look like, despite the dominant genes.·            
Cousin of Darwino  
Character and intelligence were
inherited traits o  
Father of psychometrics and
intelligence testing (because interested in human variation that Darwin only
hinted at)o  
Father of eugenics §  Galton shared an increasingly common fear among nineteenth-century
Europeans that ”civilized society’ was being weakened by the failure of
natural selection to completely eliminate unfir and inferior  ·            
Culture relativity: a concept
that cultural norms and values derive meaning within a specific social context o  
But is human behaviour only
determined by genetics or does culture also play a role? And if so, does it
affect our adaptation and chances for survival?o  
Fallacy of
materialism/reductionism (are we just a product of molecules and their
interactions which are only studied though experiments as we know them? What
about social and environment causes? Does one theory defy or outweigh the
It also depends on which
perspective you are understanding human behaviouro  
Little albert experiment –
Also, the idea that of not
‘normal’ persists ·            
Socio-biology o  
Evolutionary theory took root
in the biological scienceo  
Sociobiology – the scientific
study of the biological aspects of social behaviour in animals and humanso  
Sociobiology also refers to
current evolutionary approaches to human behaviour: if behaviour affects
reproductive success, and if behaviour is influenced by genes, then natural
selection would have shaped human behaviour at least in part§  Methods:·            
Twin studies·            
Animal studies – to study
adaptations and whether and how these may lead to more surviving offspring·            
Cross-cultural research – are
there cross-cultural differences for a particular trait. (for example
extrovertiveness was very common in the USA, due to survival)·            
Computer modelling strategies
are genetically inherited traits that control an individual’s action. Players
do not choose their strategy and cannot change it: they are born with a
strategy and their offspring inherit that same strategyo  
Intelligent desing §  The question of god§  Evolutionary theory non-committal but…§  Describes a natural order that works without the intervention of a
supernatural being§  Intelligent design implies an intelligent design §  But, if causality is probabilistic rather than deterministic…§  Then we can measure/test the probability of hypothese that
traits/organs evolved due to chance§  And we can apply conventional statistics (i.e. scientic standards)
to reject such a hypothesis

Evolutionary pyshcology

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