1. Back ground of the studyThecapitalized “Deaf” is used to describe the cultural practice of a group whoshare a language and culture with in a group. Lower case “deaf” is to refer tothe condition of not hearing or the large group of individuals with hearingloss without reference to this particular culture. Deaf people range from thosewho are profoundly deaf to those who hear nearly well enough to carry on aconversation and use telephone called hard of hearing (padden, Humphris. 2005).Socialsupport is most of the time used in a broad sense.
It is used to refer to thesocial resources that a person perceives or become aware of the available orthat are actually provided to them by non-professionals in the situation ofboth formal support groups and informal helping relationships. (Cohen,Underwood, Gottlieb, 2000). It can be structured into three broadclassifications. Social empeddedness, perceived social support, and enacted support.This research will only focus on perceived social support which is the mentalevaluation of being dependably connected to others. It is measured by includingtwo dimensions perceived availability and sufficiency of supportive ties.
Thesemeasures do not quantify the number of supports; instead they try to capture individuals’confidence that sufficient support would be accessible if it was needed. (cohenand hoberman 1983; Holahan and moos ,1981; Pracidano & Heller, 1983; Turneret al.,1983)Self-esteem is a principal component ofmental health. Morris Rosenberg defined self-esteem as a person’s briefevaluation of their value as a human being. In this explanation, self-esteem isglobal as it refers to the totalities of personal attributes rather than to asingle aspect (Rosenberg, Schooler, Schoenbach, & Rosenberg, 1995)Theself-esteem theory says that self-esteem is relates to an individual’s totaloptimistic estimate about the self (Rosenberg et al., 1995) it is humancapacity for judgment and the capacity to define who you are then decide if youlike the identity or not.
Self-esteem grows out of your circumstances in lifeand your circumstances in life are strongly influenced by self-esteem. (McKay,Fanning, 2008). It is made up of two different dimensions. The first one iscompetence dimension (efficacy-based self-esteem) it is the extent to whichpeople look at themselves as competent and efficient. The second one is (worth-based self-esteem) it is the extent to which individual has the impression thatthey are a person of value and significance. (Cast, Burke, 2002). When we discus about self esteem we must alsomention what self concept is.
Self-concept, broadly defined, is a person’sperception of him or herself. These perceptions are formed through one’sexperience with and interpretations of one’s environment, and are influencedespecially by reinforcements, evaluations of significant others, and one’sattributions for one’s own behavior (Shavelson, Hubner & Stanton, 1976).1.2 Statement of the problemThequestion if deaf individuals have lower self-esteem than their hearing peers isstill exposed to arguments.
Self esteem is a crucial idea since it is consideredto have wide speeded effect on human cognition, motivation emotion andbehavior. Earlier studies have shown that it is highly correlated with overallpsychological well being, achievement and ability to cope with stressful lifeevents (Campbell& Lavallee, 1993). In general research studies of self-esteem anddeafness produce a varying outcome (Crowe, 2003).
A number of findings havefound a higher occurrence of low self-esteem with deaf individuals than withhearing ones (Schlesinger, 2000). Other findings recommend that one need toconsider this complex phenomenon more carefully to know how deafness influence self-conceptand self-esteem (Bat-Chava, 2000). Other research found that deaf children whohad deaf parents had higher self-esteem than deaf children with a hearingparent. Also found that although self-esteem is higher for deaf people who grewin deaf community by using sign language and having deaf friends, it is lowerif deaf people do not feel proud of being member of the cultural group. (Beta-Chave, 1994). Other indicates similar self-esteem across auditory status(Percy-Smith et al.
, 2008, Sahli&Belgin 2006).Amongdifferent determinant factors many researchers found family and peer support isrelated to self-esteem (Fass& Tubman, 2002). Way of communications of deafwith their family and peers and identification of one’s in a group determinestheir self-esteem. A number of studies show that those deaf children who areraised by deaf parents often have advantages over those who are born to hearingfamilies because they are growing up in an environment where communication isnaturally dependent on visual, not oral, cues.
Almost all deaf parents use signlanguage while interacting with their children, and as a result family membersare more likely to understand each other’s needs and feelings (Crowe, 2003;McIntosh, 2000; Schirmer, 2001). These children often do not use a formallanguage fluently until they enter an environment where sign language is thedominant language (Luey, Glass, & Elliott, 1995). They also often feel moresocially isolated in their home and communities than those who have lessrestricted opportunities to communicate in the family environment (Hillburn, etal., 1997).Groupidentification is deemed one of the most important factors leading to positiveself-esteem among deaf people. For those deaf people who identify with the Deafcommunity, being deaf is not seen as a deficiency; rather, it is a part oftheir total identity. For those who adhere to a medical/pathological view anddo not recognize the cultural or linguistic aspects of their deafness, beingdeaf is a disability and disorder.
Linderman (1997) argues that internalizingthe pathological approach and rejecting deafness as a cultural concept has anegative impact on the self-esteem of deaf people. On the other hand, those whoidentify strongly with the Deaf community and spend considerable time withsimilar others often have positive self-worth (Bat-Chava, 1994; Schirmer,2001). Even though these Deaf individuals also have to face discrimination andprejudicial attitudes on the part of the hearing during their everyday lives,they belong to a community of people that share the same experiences and acommon fate. Previous studies show that those who identify strongly with theirgroup often have positive self-esteem (Bat-Chava, 1994, 2000). On the otherhand, deaf individuals who do not identify with the Deaf community but rathertry to fully fit in with the hearing world are likely to suffer poorself-esteem (Schirmer, 2001).Oneimportant factor that is claimed to have a moderating effect on self-esteem ismembership in a minority group. A minority group consists of members who shareone or more characteristics and are in a subordinate position in societyvis-à-vis a more powerful majority group.
Minority groups are often stigmatizedand include racial/ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, and deafpeople, among others. Crocker and Major (1989), in their discussion of theself-protective properties of stigma, argue that minority group membershipprotects one’s self-esteem not only from explicit prejudice or discriminationbut also from daily setbacks, failure, and rejections. Established membershipin the minority group enables the individual to disregard the opinions ofoutsiders as non-significant and only incorporate the positive appraisals ofsignificant others within one’s own group.Sincethe mid -1970s there has been expanding curiosity in the function of socialsupport as coping resource. A number of researches have proven that thecapacity of social support is directly related to the described harshness ofpsychological and physical symptoms and as a barrier between worrying lifeincidents and symptoms (Sarason, Sarason &Antoni, 1985).
Regarding the issuehow a social support function was proposed by Thoits that social supportoperate mainly as a ‘copping assistance’. This is to say that the negativeimpact of a stressful situation is improved when other peoples help someonedeal with the situation by themselves (thoits, 1986). Others proposed these isdone by improving self esteem and sense of control over environment .it alsohelps to promote positive emotional experiences there by reducing the negativeeffect of stress (Pearlin, Liberman,Menagnan & Mullan, 1981). Bothquantitative measures (number of friends to go to when one need support) andqualitative measures (perception of social support adequacy) have been studied.Some studies restated that significantly inverse association exists between quantitativemeasures of social support and psychological state like anxiety stress. Also itwas suggested that size of social support system and the satisfaction with thesupport received are two separate aspects of social support. (Sarason et al.
,1985).Soin this research the student researcher tries to find if self-esteem is higheror lower among deaf students and if it has an association with perceived socialsupport. This study is worth studying because it will add to our knowledge if self-esteemand social support have a negative or positive relation or association and if self-esteemis higher or lower among deaf students.1.3 Research QuestionsThisresearch asks questions as, is there an association between self-esteem andperceives social support among deaf students? And if there is an association,what kind of association is there? What is the level of self-esteem among deafstudents? And what is the degree of perceived social support?2. Methodology 2.1. Research DesignThestudy will use both a quantitative descriptive approach and a correlationaldesign.
The decision to use this design is because description is used to identify and obtain information on thefeature of a particular issue and usually used to summarize and representthe association mathematically by information undertaken to be certain of andto describe the characteristics of the issue. Correlational design will be used due to the factthat it enabled the researcher to discover the relationship between variablesthrough the use of correlational statistics (Gall, Borg & Gall 1996;Orodho, 2005).A major purpose of correlational research is to clarify ourunderstanding of important phenomena through the identification ofrelationships among variables: self-esteem and perceived social support(Babbie,2011).This study attempted to determine the relationships that occur betweenperceived social support and self-esteem among deaf students in Addis AbabaUniversity 6 kilo campus. 2.
2. Population and SamplingToaddress a research questions, the researcher decides which people and researchsites can best provide information, and puts a sampling procedure in place, anddetermines the number of individuals (i.e.
sample) that will be needed toprovide data.Samplingis the process of selecting a few cases from a large population of cases forpurpose of studying these few cases and generalizing on the large population. Thetarget population refers to all the members of a real or hypothetical set ofpeople, events or subjects to which we generalize the results of our research.Thestudent researcher purposively selected 6 Kilo campus among all campuses ofAddis Ababa University. The campus is selected for its sizeable deaf studentbody among others and it is representative of the population of deaf studentsin Addis Ababa University since majority of the deaf students are attendingtheir education at the selected campus.
(Source: center for disabilityimplemented by African Aid Initiative International, AAII)Thetarget population of this research is all deaf students in 6 kilo campus whoare registered to attend their education from fresh man to graduate class. Ofthe total of 120 Deaf students in the campus simple random sampling techniqueof systematic sampling will used to select study participant. (Source: centerfor disability implemented by African Aid Initiative International, AAII)2.3. Data collection instrumentTwobalancing approaches describe the effort made to establish measures thatevaluate difference among people.
Those are questionnaires and rating scales(Carano,Brewer, 2002).Theinstruments that will be used to address the research questions in this studyincludes Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE) and multidimensional scale ofperceived social support. Rosenberg self-esteemscale (RSE): It is a self-report 10-item measurerwas designed by Morris Rosenberg, PhD in 1965 to evaluate self-esteem amongadolescence. It is a global and unidimensional measure. It is answered usingthe 4-point Likert scale developed by Rensis Likert fairly easy to understand,based on based on the relative intensity of different items and the scoresrange from 10-40 with higher score representing higher self-esteem. It is byfar the most commonly used. (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991 cited in Robins,Hendin &Trzesniewski ,2001). RSE has been given more psychometric analysisand practical proof than any other self-esteem measure.
(Gary-Little, 1997)Multidimensional scaleof perceived social support: For measuringperceived social support the student researcher will use multidimensional scaleof perceived social support to measure social support. It is a compromised of12-item with 4 items for each subscale it was designed by Gregory Zimet,NancyDahlem, Sara Zimet ,and Gordon Farley in 1988.In an attempt to increaseresponses variability and minimize the restricting effect , a 7 point Likert-type scaling ranging from very stronglydisagree(1)to very strongly agree (7) will be implemented. Questionnairedesigned to measure perceptions of social support and satisfaction with thatsupport. Each item in the questions request two answer.
Part one asksparticipants to list all the people that fit the description of the questionand part two asks participants to indicate how satisfied they are in generalwith these people. This scale is preferred because it has a good internal andtest-retest reliability as well as moderate construct validation and is alsospecifically addresses the subjectivity evaluation of social support. It assessesadequacy of social support from three specific sources: family, friends, andsignificant others. It is self-descriptive to use, time saving that make it anideal research instrument for use when researcher’s time is limited and thereare a number of variables being measured at the same time (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet,& Farley, 1988).2.
4.Data collection procedureInstrumentwill be distributed to the systematic randomly selected deaf students. Participants will be asked to read and sign aninformed consent form prior to completing the survey.
An explanation of the instrumentand the consent form will be given to students for who are interested in participatingin the study. Then participants will watch videotaped version of bothRosenberg’s self esteem scale and multidimensional scale for perceives socialsupport which will be translated into Ethiopian sign language by professionaltranslator. Participants will be given the necessary time to complete each ofthe questions in both scales. And they will circle the answer of thecorresponding question.2.5.Method of data analysisThe demographic variables (age, sex, academicyear and so on) of the respondent will be analyzed through frequencydistribution like mean, median, mode and percentage.
Comparison oflevels of self-esteem and perceived social support among different domains willbe analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis method. This is becausethe student researcher wants to analyze whether there is association betweentwo variables (i.e. self-esteem and perceived social support) the studentresearcher will use Pearson’s correlation statistical analysis. 2.6.Ethical considerationTermpreference Thestudent researcher will not view the deaf students as disable and will notcompare them with the hearing groups by one is normal and the other isincapable or disabled and will not focus on the supposed effect of deafness.
Offensiveterms like “Deaf and Dumb”, “Deaf- mute”, and “Hearing-impaired” will not beused. These terms are offensive because “Dumb and Mute” is to mean “silent”deaf peoples are by no means “silent” since they use sign language lip-reading,vocalizations and other means to communicate. And the last term is offensivebecause it has a negative meaning that it focuses on what they can’t do bysetting the standard as ‘hearing’ and meaning to be anything other than’hearing’ is not acceptable. (Singleton, Jones, & Hunmantha, 2014)Informedconsent Participantswill be informed about the research being conducted, the purpose of conductingit, what will be done with record materials, how their data will be used andafter informing the participants they will be allowed to make an informeddecision on continuing to participate or withdrawing. AnonymityThestudent researcher will inform all the participants in the research that it isforbidden to write any information that will lead to the identification of the respondentsor reveal the identity of the participantsVoluntaryparticipationThestudent researcher will inform all the deaf participants to participate bytheir own free will and without any threatening force.
And that it is possibleto withdraw their participation at any time.ConfidentialityTheconfidential records of the participants will be kept in a secure Area where itis only access able for the student researcher.