HowMixed Methods Approaches Research Evaluation.Parallel mixed method data analysis: Thismakes use of two separate processes the qualitative and the quantitative: in quantitative method the conventionalstatistics analysis technique is used, such as frequency table; crosstabulation, regression analysis, etc. While the qualitative method uses methodslike the content analysis, the findings of these two sets of analyses are thencompared with triangulation.
Conversion mixed methods data analysis:This process converts qualitative data to quantitative data. Data are usuallynarrative, that is, there are data from legal administration, politics, social,humanities etc. They are usually recorded into numerical data (using the dummyvariable to “1” and “0”). Also quantitative data can be converted intoqualitative data by recreating a descriptive typology of the data.
Sequential mixed method data analysis:This is when either qualitative or quantitative precedes one another in theresearch approach. MM design used is more robust when qualitative orquantitative is used sequentially.Multilevel mixed method: This technique isused at different levels of the evaluation design such as the example given intable 1.2. 3.0 BroaderMethodological Framework (GroundedTheory)3.1 Grounded TheoryTwo sociologists Barney G. and Anselm L Strauss in the 1960sdeveloped Grounded theory.
They noticed other sociological theories thatdominated empirical research, with a closer view of various research methods,they developed a theory that structures researcher away from mere analytical constructionsfrom pre-existing theories and categorical variables analysis to a moresubstantial evident based theories from data. A grounded theory is a systematicresearch methodology from the analysis of data used to explain theories. Grounded theory is a systematic qualitativeprocedure used to conceptualized theories from analytical research data. Itexplains a broad conceptual level, a process, an action, or an interactionbetween substantial topics (Creswell 2009).
It is that theory that is developedfrom inductively from data from a qualitative analysis technique, it is mainlyused for qualitative research and applicable to quantitative data. In general,theory-generating is from inductive researches, hence it is linked withqualitative research, while theory-testing are deductive in nature, andtherefore it is linked with quantitative experiments. Since grounded theory canalso be applicable to quantitative data, it can be said that grounded theory isdeveloped deductively also because sometimes through developing a theory aresearcher may make use of a combination of quantitative and qualitative datawhich means combining deductive and inductive elements.
After the developmentof grounded theory, there has been lot of dispute about the nature and thescope of grounded theory, Glaser and Strauss disagree about the nature and howit ought to be practiced, this lead to other version of grounded theory suchCharmaz’s , Corbin etc. but Glaser later suggested that the original version ofgrounded theory should be used (Charmaz 2003) .3.2The Frame of Grounded Theory and how to use itTheory is a common wordwithin academic environment, it is used so often that the true meaning can belost. Theory can be described in three main forms in the context of research(Reynolds, 2007). A theory can be a “conception of scientific knowledge as aset of well-supported empirical generalizations, such as a set of laws,” or “antrans-disciplinary interrelated set of definitions, axioms, and propositions,”or “a set of descriptions of causal process” (Reynolds, 2007). The combinationand connection of all three parts is conceptualized as grounded theory, as thedata collected gives researcher insight about the knowledge, defines the actualcontext are, and describes the interconnectivity process between differentconcepts that explains the main and/orexpanding knowledge of the research.
Similar to theory is synthesizing ofconcepts, which holds together concepts to help describe a process (Bowen2006).Grounded theory assumesa substantive constructive construct by researchers and the formulation oftheories from systematic analysis of empirical data. Grounded theory beginswith inductive data and progressively developing abstract concepts and theirrelationships, which bind’s data with its theoretical analysis. This methodconsists of systematic strategies to guide qualitative inquiry, particularly,data analysis.
Grounded theory promotes theory construction based ondescription, individual narrative patterns, which leads to the development offresh ideas for applied theories (Brown et al 2002). The application ofGrounded theory is in multiple stages such as:Data collection: thereare several methods of collecting data used in grounded theory, such assemi-structured and unstructured interviewing, participant and none participantobservation and focus groups discussion.Data analysis andpresentation: In Grounded theory data analysis, characters in forms of figures,and pictorial charts represent concepts beyond the actualities by looking forcodes, then concepts and finally categories. Coding: Is a form ofcontent analysis which examines and conceptualize the key issues among the”crowd” raw data collected. The researcher becomes sensitive to theinterviewee’s words or phrases that are commonly used. The researcher notes thewords and studies the pattern in its content from their discussion orinterviews. These short phrases which are noted are termed coding. Concepts: The analysisof codes with related theme which are grouped together that is of highercommonality (Allan 2003).
Memoing: Note makingabout any theoretical hypotheses from coding.Categories: This is thegrouping and regrouping of concept to find other commonality called categorieswhich leads to the emergence of a theory (Allan 2003). Sorting: As soon asdata from the studies make sense or begins to add up to knowledge, the emergingsorting is done out of the information accordingly to knowledge.3.
3 Framing MixedMethod by Grounded theoryGrounded theory formsthe based line of qualitative research which is inductive in nature. It tendsto progress from inductive through different methods and stages. Likewisegrounded theory could also actualize its aims with the introduction ofdeductive method to conceptualized its framing from none participantobservation to theoretical content. This style of research methodology couldfit in the mixed method to actualize its aim. Just like grounded theory themixed methods using both inductive and deductive methods in its researchermethod, the inductive method is qualitative methods and the deductive methodsis quantitative methods.
Inductive promotes an unintentional observation thatis, the openness of the researcher to discovery, usually from observation andexperiences from communication with the people, culture and the environment thatwill guide the conceptualization of new ideals which forms theories. Thedeductive research could be applied depending on the nature of the projectbegin carried. In some case the researcher need to make use of already existinginformation or data which helps to randomized the sample into a frame foranalysis.Mixed method hasprocedures like the grounded theories, which can go from abstract to noneabstract vice versa (Driscoll et. al 2007). But grounded theory is moreparticular about the none abstract way of researching issues which tend toportrait a none bias way of research.
When using mixed methods, it always tendsto qualify the quantitative aspect by drawing logical reasoning from theethnography of the study which is analyzed in comparison to the quantitativeinformation. 4.0Delineate Mixed Method Framed in Grounded Theories from other MethodsA study using groundedtheory gives a series a rules and procedures which is likely to begin with aquestion, or even just with the collection of qualitative data.
As researchersreview the data collected; repeated ideas, concepts or elements becomeapparent, and are tagged with codes, which have been extracted from the data. Thisgive the research work a much more robust fact from subjective statement toobjectiveness facts. The outcome can be framed within the qualitative methodslike in the social science and humanities or in quantitative frame such as thenatural and the physical science for quantifying reasoning.Mixed methods is a morerigorous process both in its qualitative and quantitative methods, it takes adetailed account.
It brings interplay of both the qualitative and thequantitative perspective to research style moving from co-mixed within methodor a co-switch between methods at different levels or stages. It is a dynamicmethod which helps in flexible evaluation to outcome and impact analysisirrespective of lay down theories which reduces research bias to the nearestminimum. It gives a new inspired thought of reasoning to fresh ideals inresearch, taking away the stereotype to research methods These categories maybecome the basis for new theory.
Thus, mixed method framed in grounded theoryis quite different from the traditional model of research, where the researcherchooses an existing theoretical framework, and only then collects data to showhow the theory does or does not apply to the phenomenon under study. 5.0Advantages and Disadvantages of Mixed Method5.1AdvantagesMixed method (MM) areused in the validation of the data collected using both qualitative and quantitativemethods, the variability in the data collection leads to a greater validity inthe result or outcome, it gives a broader horizon into the research project.Mixed method (MM)answer questions from of multiple perspective that is, from qualitative toquantitative, brings both inductive and deductive reasoning into play. It giveroom to question like what, why, how, and if. It creates flexibility within andbetween its contexts.Mixed method tries toclose the gaps or lags both in content and context of the data collected, itensure that the data of analysis is robust for a broader explanation orin-depth coverage of the outcome orimpact analysis.
Mixed methods isdynamic in its evaluation processes, ensure to curb and manage the researcherper-existing assumptions about a researcher area, problem or issues. It tendsto validate the researchers un-biasness from its inductive method allowingopenness to fresh ideas. Mixed method is bothsupplementary and complimentary in research work.
When one method does notprovided sufficient information to the analysis or research work.Mixed method is goodfor data transformation, it can be used to transform qualitative data toquantitative and vice versa.5.2DisadvantagesThe conversion ofqualitative data to quantitative data often leads to the loss of itsflexibility and depth, which are the main advantages to qualitative research.This loss occurs because qualitative coding is multidimensional (Bazeley,2004). Quantitative coding are fixed in a single dimension, sometimesdichotomous.Mixed method design isvulnerable to collinearity or multi-collinearity, this results from thequalitative data begin quantitized (Roberts 2002).
When researcher try to putthe data into categories to enable coding of the data collineartiy occurs. The controllingfor collinearity by the researcher reduces the validity of the Informationprovided. Mixed method is expensive to conduct and it is time consuming. It isalso difficult to find a researcher with adequate experience in both QUANT ANDQUAL research methods. Another issue in mixed methods is how to interpretconflicting results from both QUANT and QUAL analysis. 6.
0 Assessing MixedMethods for Development StudiesMM is a very importanttool in research design for development planners and policy makers. MM gives adeeper insight to the issues or projects by describing and analysis the factsas related to individuals, groups, societies, and their sociological backgrounds.It’s a good tool of policy advocacy for implementation, because MM examinesquantitative result and describes its facts in the simplest term to the policydevelopers, backing up the narrative discourse with data presented inpercentages, frequency of occurrences and averages.Most recently, MM is apower tool for recent fields of study such as monitoring and evaluation ofprograms and projects.
Development itself is an evolutionary subject matter,with dynamic issues. In the same way the development researcher and plannerstends to monitor the progress made at every given stage of the project becauseof its constant changes. MM impact assessment helps researcher and developmentplanners to see the corresponding changes at different stage of the projectwhich aids clarity. Impact assessment it a vital part of the evaluationprocess, it alert the planner on the extent to which the program as affectedthe targeted group. These conclusions are usually drawn from the statisticaldata or analysis of the data collected.MM is a good tool forforecasting and predicting programs and projects and can also assess theprobability of occurrences for changes base on its qualitative processes fromin-depth inductive assessment.