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Human
trafficking is a tough crime to identify and stop. Human trafficking crimes
occur worldwide. Organized crime, prostitution, and brothels, indicated by
research, are closely connected to the crime of human trafficking. Financial
profits are usually the main motivation for human trafficking, government
exploitation and international criminal organizations contribute greatly to
this crime. Exploitation of the
person being trafficked include and are not limited to prostitution, forced
labour or services, slavery or removal of organs. The purpose of this research
paper is to inform, educate, and make people aware that human trafficking still
exists, and to examine the various elements of human trafficking
including the recognized definition, and the commonness of human trafficking.

 

     The department of homeland
security defines human trafficking as “Modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to
obtain some type of labour or commercial sex act”. Around the world, every
year, men woman, and children are being trafficked. Victims rarely come forward
seeking help because of the language barriers they usually face, fear of their
captors and/or law enforcement. Traffickers
usually look for people who are susceptible for different kinds of reasons,
including and not limited to psychological vulnerability, and financial
hardship. 

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    According to an article written by Jenny
Yang on September 2 2014 “Victims of trafficking come from a wide variety of backgrounds
and a diverse pool of gender, racial, religious, and cultural identities, but
there is an astonishing common denominator, a large portion of trafficking
victims in the United States are immigrants”.

     According to the New York
Times in an article published by (Gardiner Harris, published on June 28, 2017), “China Is among the Worst
Human Trafficking Offenders”. Saying that, China is one of the world’s worst
offenders allowing modern day slavery to flourish and prosper within its
borders. He also stated that around eighty thousand North Koreans are being
forced to work overseas, mostly in Russia and china, and the wages being made
by them are being used by the North Korean government to fund its illegal
weapons programs.

     In an article
written in the guardian, the US called China a “source, destination and transit
country” for forced labour and sex trafficking. Describing internal migrants
particularly in China are very vulnerable to trafficking. Also stating “Men,
women, and children from other countries in Asia and from Africa are also
exploited”.

      According to the article more than half
the population of modern day slavery comes from five countries, China being one
of them with 3.5 million of its people being trafficked.

     According to the International Labour
Organization, estimated that there are 20.9 million human trafficking victims
worldwide, that is only what has been reported. According to the United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime, sexual exploitation is the
most commonly identified form ahead of forced labour.

     According to an article written by (Priscilla Alvarez, 2016 February 23, in the Atlantic) “women can be pulled in to commercial sex
through gangs or pimps- the former
function as delivery services, taking women to houses in the territory they
control, while the last concentrate on hotels and road level
prostitution”.

     Trafficking in both China and the United
States occur more than one can imagine, usually among the poor but does not
exclude the rich. In both countries the rate of trafficked women is greater due
to the sex trade which is highly profitable.

 

     According
to BBC news (27 June 2017) China “is not making
significant efforts” to stop human trafficking, the US says, claiming that
fewer people are now being prosecuted than before.

     Reports continue to emerge from the
restive Xinjiang
province that say Uighur Muslims are
being put into forced labour by officials “despite the local government
issuing a notice in early 2017 that the practice had been completely
abolished”. Fewer sex and labour traffickers were prosecuted in the past
year than the year before. The government did increase cooperation with foreign
governments over trafficking, and to investigate cases of trafficked Chinese
nationals abroad.

     Several laws have been enacted by the
Chinese government that address trafficking, kidnapping, and sexual
exploitation of women and children. It made a law in which both the kidnapper
and the seller are both prosecuted. Under the Chinese criminal code violence of
any kind against abducted women and children are subjected to prosecution. The
main laws made by the Chinese government are mostly for sex trafficking while
laws concerning labour trafficking are yet to be worked on. The United Natiotakns
is working alongside international human rights laws to try identifying and
explaining the major obligations of states to help prevent trafficking,
protecting and supporting victims, and bring those responsible to justice.

 

           Several
international organizations are fighting human trafficking at a global scale in
an effort to combat human trafficking.

In order to protected people from trafficking and from
traffickers some legislations and policies have been made. One legislation is
the “Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000” which prevents human
trafficking and protects survivors and victims of trafficking. It made
trafficking a federal crime, and victims of human trafficking are given
restitution. Another legislation is “Trafficking Victims Protection
Reauthorization Act of 2003” which allows the trafficking victims to sue their
traffickers. Human trafficking has been added to the list of violations that
can be charged under the Racketeering Influenced Corrupt Organization statute.

       Trafficking
Victims protection act of 2000 states that “A
countries government must prohibit severe forms of trafficking in persons and
punish acts of such trafficking”. It also goes further to state “For the
knowing commission of any act of sex trafficking involving force, fraud,
coercion, or in which the victim of sex trafficking is a child incapable of
giving meaningful permission, or of trafficking which includes rape or
kidnapping or which causes a death, the government of the country must order
punishment appropriate with that for severe crimes, such as forcible sexual
assault”, it goes on and adds  “For the
knowing commission of any act of a severe form of trafficking in persons, the
government of the country must prescribe punishment that is adequately strict
to discourage and that adequately reflects the terrible nature of the offense”.

 

      It is important
to address the factors that drive human trafficking, as well as to alter the
market incentives of high profit and low risk that traffickers exploit to
ultimately solve the problem of human trafficking.

     The main two
reason that human trafficking still exists and thrives is because of the low
risk and high profits. The lack of government and law enforcement training, low
community awareness, limited resources for victim recovery makes trafficking
low risk. Peoples willingness to buy commercial sex, and buy services from this
type of industry they make a market, which makes it profitable for traffickers.

 

     Effects of human
trafficking on victims can be permanent and damaging. The physical and mental
well-being of the victims are at risk when being trafficked. Work and living
conditions can be unsanitary and stressful, and they usually receive little to
no healthcare. Most victims experience significant emotional, sexual, physical,
and psychological violence. If the victim escapes or is rescued, integration
back to society can be difficult because of the shame and abused experienced.

 

     An important piece of any anti trafficking
prevention strategy is to increase the public awareness about the risks and
signs of human trafficking. Public awareness campaigns target either those
considered to be most at risk, such as migrant workers and those who may be
contributing knowingly or unknowingly to the demand. Due to the restrictions in
campaigns about human trafficking, public awareness is limited by only using
posters and billboards. To make the public more educated and more aware,
governments are trying to raise awareness about trafficking with diplomatic
personnel, medical specialists, educational and social service personal since
they are most likely to come into contact with individuals who might be at
higher risk of being subjected to trafficking. Presentations can be held to
raise awareness and are extremely helpful, that can be held by victims
themselves to educate people better about trafficking.

 

     The US Department of State urge civil
society organizations, and companies to collaborate in order to develop
awareness campaigns that have clear objectives and measurable outcomes, and to
train and educate employees as well as relevant partners.

 

     This research into the problem of human
trafficking led to the conclusion it is vital to clarify the definition and
occurrence of trafficking to law enforcement and other agencies that can help
detect victims and offenders. This will involve training proper authorities in
recognition of trafficking. Well-defined laws are also needed to assist law
enforcement agencies in locating traffickers. Keeping in mind the better
interests of victims is vital in helping to stop trafficking.