Humantrafficking is a tough crime to identify and stop.
Human trafficking crimesoccur worldwide. Organized crime, prostitution, and brothels, indicated byresearch, are closely connected to the crime of human trafficking. Financialprofits are usually the main motivation for human trafficking, governmentexploitation and international criminal organizations contribute greatly tothis crime. Exploitation of theperson being trafficked include and are not limited to prostitution, forcedlabour or services, slavery or removal of organs.
The purpose of this researchpaper is to inform, educate, and make people aware that human trafficking stillexists, and to examine the various elements of human traffickingincluding the recognized definition, and the commonness of human trafficking. The department of homelandsecurity defines human trafficking as “Modern-day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion toobtain some type of labour or commercial sex act”. Around the world, everyyear, men woman, and children are being trafficked. Victims rarely come forwardseeking help because of the language barriers they usually face, fear of theircaptors and/or law enforcement. Traffickersusually look for people who are susceptible for different kinds of reasons,including and not limited to psychological vulnerability, and financialhardship. According to an article written by JennyYang on September 2 2014 “Victims of trafficking come from a wide variety of backgroundsand a diverse pool of gender, racial, religious, and cultural identities, butthere is an astonishing common denominator, a large portion of traffickingvictims in the United States are immigrants”. According to the New YorkTimes in an article published by (Gardiner Harris, published on June 28, 2017), “China Is among the WorstHuman Trafficking Offenders”.
Saying that, China is one of the world’s worstoffenders allowing modern day slavery to flourish and prosper within itsborders. He also stated that around eighty thousand North Koreans are beingforced to work overseas, mostly in Russia and china, and the wages being madeby them are being used by the North Korean government to fund its illegalweapons programs. In an articlewritten in the guardian, the US called China a “source, destination and transitcountry” for forced labour and sex trafficking. Describing internal migrantsparticularly in China are very vulnerable to trafficking. Also stating “Men,women, and children from other countries in Asia and from Africa are alsoexploited”.
According to the article more than halfthe population of modern day slavery comes from five countries, China being oneof them with 3.5 million of its people being trafficked. According to the International LabourOrganization, estimated that there are 20.9 million human trafficking victimsworldwide, that is only what has been reported. According to the United NationsOffice on Drugs and Crime, sexual exploitation is themost commonly identified form ahead of forced labour.
According to an article written by (Priscilla Alvarez, 2016 February 23, in the Atlantic) “women can be pulled in to commercial sexthrough gangs or pimps- the formerfunction as delivery services, taking women to houses in the territory theycontrol, while the last concentrate on hotels and road levelprostitution”. Trafficking in both China and the UnitedStates occur more than one can imagine, usually among the poor but does notexclude the rich. In both countries the rate of trafficked women is greater dueto the sex trade which is highly profitable.
Accordingto BBC news (27 June 2017) China “is not makingsignificant efforts” to stop human trafficking, the US says, claiming thatfewer people are now being prosecuted than before. Reports continue to emerge from therestive Xinjiangprovince that say Uighur Muslims arebeing put into forced labour by officials “despite the local governmentissuing a notice in early 2017 that the practice had been completelyabolished”. Fewer sex and labour traffickers were prosecuted in the pastyear than the year before.
The government did increase cooperation with foreigngovernments over trafficking, and to investigate cases of trafficked Chinesenationals abroad. Several laws have been enacted by theChinese government that address trafficking, kidnapping, and sexualexploitation of women and children. It made a law in which both the kidnapperand the seller are both prosecuted. Under the Chinese criminal code violence ofany kind against abducted women and children are subjected to prosecution. Themain laws made by the Chinese government are mostly for sex trafficking whilelaws concerning labour trafficking are yet to be worked on. The United Natiotaknsis working alongside international human rights laws to try identifying andexplaining the major obligations of states to help prevent trafficking,protecting and supporting victims, and bring those responsible to justice. Severalinternational organizations are fighting human trafficking at a global scale inan effort to combat human trafficking.
In order to protected people from trafficking and fromtraffickers some legislations and policies have been made. One legislation isthe “Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000” which prevents humantrafficking and protects survivors and victims of trafficking. It madetrafficking a federal crime, and victims of human trafficking are givenrestitution. Another legislation is “Trafficking Victims ProtectionReauthorization Act of 2003” which allows the trafficking victims to sue theirtraffickers.
Human trafficking has been added to the list of violations thatcan be charged under the Racketeering Influenced Corrupt Organization statute. TraffickingVictims protection act of 2000 states that “Acountries government must prohibit severe forms of trafficking in persons andpunish acts of such trafficking”. It also goes further to state “For theknowing commission of any act of sex trafficking involving force, fraud,coercion, or in which the victim of sex trafficking is a child incapable ofgiving meaningful permission, or of trafficking which includes rape orkidnapping or which causes a death, the government of the country must orderpunishment appropriate with that for severe crimes, such as forcible sexualassault”, it goes on and adds “For theknowing commission of any act of a severe form of trafficking in persons, thegovernment of the country must prescribe punishment that is adequately strictto discourage and that adequately reflects the terrible nature of the offense”. It is importantto address the factors that drive human trafficking, as well as to alter themarket incentives of high profit and low risk that traffickers exploit toultimately solve the problem of human trafficking.
The main tworeason that human trafficking still exists and thrives is because of the lowrisk and high profits. The lack of government and law enforcement training, lowcommunity awareness, limited resources for victim recovery makes traffickinglow risk. Peoples willingness to buy commercial sex, and buy services from thistype of industry they make a market, which makes it profitable for traffickers. Effects of humantrafficking on victims can be permanent and damaging. The physical and mentalwell-being of the victims are at risk when being trafficked.
Work and livingconditions can be unsanitary and stressful, and they usually receive little tono healthcare. Most victims experience significant emotional, sexual, physical,and psychological violence. If the victim escapes or is rescued, integrationback to society can be difficult because of the shame and abused experienced. An important piece of any anti traffickingprevention strategy is to increase the public awareness about the risks andsigns of human trafficking. Public awareness campaigns target either thoseconsidered to be most at risk, such as migrant workers and those who may becontributing knowingly or unknowingly to the demand. Due to the restrictions incampaigns about human trafficking, public awareness is limited by only usingposters and billboards. To make the public more educated and more aware,governments are trying to raise awareness about trafficking with diplomaticpersonnel, medical specialists, educational and social service personal sincethey are most likely to come into contact with individuals who might be athigher risk of being subjected to trafficking.
Presentations can be held toraise awareness and are extremely helpful, that can be held by victimsthemselves to educate people better about trafficking. The US Department of State urge civilsociety organizations, and companies to collaborate in order to developawareness campaigns that have clear objectives and measurable outcomes, and totrain and educate employees as well as relevant partners. This research into the problem of humantrafficking led to the conclusion it is vital to clarify the definition andoccurrence of trafficking to law enforcement and other agencies that can helpdetect victims and offenders. This will involve training proper authorities inrecognition of trafficking. Well-defined laws are also needed to assist lawenforcement agencies in locating traffickers. Keeping in mind the betterinterests of victims is vital in helping to stop trafficking.