Human there are three factors to calculate human development

development is a very important topic in all continents in terms of all living
things. It directly consists of societies who are committed to improving the
lives of its people and also be dedicated to the full and equal rights for all.
Human development defines the growth of humans throughout the life span, from
birth to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand
and explain how and why people change throughout life. According to the “United
Nations” there are three factors to calculate human development in a country.
These factors cover many aspects of a country, including social development in
a country. Income, education, and healthy living are considered to be the most
important factors in human development, which help to rid populations of
poverty, and support human rights. In this essay I will identify human
development, discuss and argue perspectives of human development in relation to
theories and contemporary theories of human development, its historical
perspectives in relation to stages of development and relate to my own child
hood and culture, discuss contemporary perspectives of human development in
relations to today’s changing development world and before concluding I will
also demonstrate professional standards of communication and literacy in the
learning and teaching process.

Moving on, as we look at the past different
continents around the world, they have their own culture and beliefs which
relates to their own theories of human development. Looking at the theory of
Lev Vygotshy, this is about parallel in individual and cultural-historical
development. Lev Vygotshy was a Soviet psychologist, the forefather of an incomplete
theory of human cultural and bio-social development normally referred to as
cultural-historical psychology. His main work suggested a theory of the
development of “higher psychological functions” that saw human psychological
development as developing through interpersonal influences and activities with
the societal environment. The main difference between Lev Vygotsky and Jean
Piaget is that Vygotsky believed that learning occurs along a spectrum. He
invented the term zone of proximal development to designate the sweet spot
between what a child already knows and what he does not know yet. The middle
ground of zone of proximal development is where children can learn with
assistance of peers and teachers. On the other hand Jean Piaget was the first
psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions
include a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational
studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to
reveal different cognitive abilities. Piaget’s theory is divided into four
stages, Sensorimotor stage which deals with the infant where they explore their
surroundings, Pre-operational stage deals with early child hood, where the
child begins to apply logical structures to thinking, Concrete operational
stage deals with the child’s ability to understand physical properties and the
last stage is Formal operational stage where the child begins the journey of
adultery and is able to do advanced thinking or think abstractly. Piaget’s
theory was different from Lev Vygotsky’s theory in the sense that Piaget
believed that children went through specific stages. The two theories also are
similar to each other as both of them believe that development occurs because
the child is an active learner. The child must actively organize new
information with existing information to obtain a state of equilibrium hence
they also believe that development declines with age.

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Furthermore, Sigmund Freud was an Austrian
neurologist who believed that human development is in the form of psychosexual
development which is based on the idea that parents play a crucial role in
managing their children’s sexual and aggressive drives during the first few
years of life to foster their proper development. Freud’s structural model
posits that personality consists of three interworking parts: the id, the ego, and the superego
and is divide into five stages of Freud’s psychosexual theory of
development including the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.
Oral stage (0-1 years of age) states
that the mouth is the pleasure centre for infants as they are fed by
their mothers and if this is not accomplished then the infant might go through
bad habits such as nail baiting and thumb sucking. Anal stage (1-3 years of age) states that during this
stage toddlers and pre-school children begin to learn about urine and feces. They learn to control their bodily
functions and if not carried out properly the child may be uptight and
overly obsessed with order. Phallic
stage (3-6 years of age) states that in this stage pre-schoolers take
pleasure in their genitals and struggle with sexual desires toward the opposite
sex, for example, boys to mothers and girls to fathers. The next stage which is
the Latency stage (6-12 years of age)
focuses on sexual instincts subside, meaning children begin to behave in
morally acceptable way and adopt to the values of their parents and other
important adults. The last stage focuses on Genitals (12+ years of age) which describes that if all the previous
stages are properly conducted teenagers engage in marriage and child
birth. Sigmund Freud’s theory is different from other theories because his work
was based on stages which are related to children, but his entire research was
on troubled teens not on adolescents’. His work was also focussed on human
sexuality and assumed that all children fall under the same stages.

On the other hand Erik Erikson ideas on human
development were greatly influenced by Freud but he emphasized the role of
culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego
itself. He extended the stages which consist of 8 stages, Trust vs. mistrust-
in this stage the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live and
looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care,
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt- in this stage the child is developing and is
between 18 months and three years, where they pick whatever toy they want and
make choices about what they like to wear, to eat, Initiative vs. Guilt- this
is between the age three and five where child regularly interacting with other
children at school. Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority is the fought stage
and it occurs during childhood between the ages of five and twelve. In this
stage the children are more focused on education where they learn to read and
write. Identity vs. Role Confusion- occurs during adolescence, from about 12-18
years where teenagers search for a sense of self and personal identity, through
an intense exploration of personal values, beliefs, and goals. Intimacy vs.
Isolation- is from ages 18 to 40 years where we explore relationships and leap towards
long term relationships, Generativity vs. Stagnation- is during ages 40 to 65
where we focus more on our careers and settle down. Lastly Ego Integrity vs.
Despair- is where individuals go beyond the age 65 and become senior citizens
and tend to slow down our productivity and explore life as a retired person. Erik
Erikson theory is different from the rest of the theories because he focuses on
a descriptive overview of human social and emotional development that does not
adequately explain how or why this development occurs. This is because he does
not explain how the outcome of one psychosocial stage influences personality at
a later stage. One of the strengths of this theory is its ability to tie
together important psychosocial development across the entire lifespan.

After studying the three theories I personally believe
that Piaget, Vysgotsky and Erikson’s differ in terms of how they approach
discovery learning or education. In Piaget’s theory for learning teacher intervention
is very little whereas Vygotsky and Erikson believe that teacher discovery learning
is a key factor of in individual in a classroom. This means the teacher gives
the questions to students and they answer it which helps the students in the
discovery learning process. As a teacher I strongly believe that teachers
should utilizing Vygotskian methods for teaching which will be a very active
way of learning for the children. The teachers should apply the techniques of teaching
by providing assistance and offering feedback when offering new information to
their students. As teachers we should also make sure that students have all the
necessary tools for learning. We should always be a role model to students and
teach them to use the appropriate tools such as, computers, resource books, graphs,
importance of studying the and how can these skills help them in future. Another
important factor which Vygotsky highlighted is peer learning where students
discuss with each other through dialogues and learning by seeing what others
are doing, which can also lead to better understanding of the material. Taking
into consideration the three theories I have always applied Vygotskian
principles to my classroom. I believe that the method of peer learning,
constructing group work, dialogue exchange and cultural tools are all very
important components of the teacher student learning process. We should always
help students with their zone of proximal development, we should also offer
them useful learning strategies which they will adopt and utilize later in
life. This theory is strongly related to my personal experience as my first
year of teaching was based at Sigatoka Methodist College. It was my first year
and majority of the students that were from a different background and followed
a different culture while only a few students belonged to the Hindu culture. I
encountered children who did not have the same academic capabilities, some were
very smart, some were average, and the rest were not performing well. This
information was collected after topic test 1 which was done during week 4 of
the first term. I believed that each and every student is being taught the same
thing, they have the same notes, homework and activities, and still the results
was unfavourable. To overcome the problem I tried to categorize students in
three groups where I mixed bright and average students with the ones who were
not performing well and made sure that the smart ones helped the students of
the group. This step was successful as the students results were getting better
day by day.

To conclude, this essay has taught me a variety of
important values which I believe is important to me as a teacher. A teacher is
the main pillar in a student’s life, we provide assistance to students in need,
and provide cultural tools as educational resources. We should always provide group
and peer learning, in order for students to support each other through the
discovery process. Especially in today’s diverse classroom, the teacher needs
to be sensitive to her student’s cultural background and language, and be an
active participant in his knowledge construction. This is all possible by
applying Lev Vygotsky’s theory in reality.