I. For a long time, this disorder has not


to the National Institute of Mental Health (2016), in daily lives, sadness and
anxiety are things that people all suffer from time to time, but these emotions
often pass as time flies and are reffered to as normal reactions to challenging
times in life. However, when people are diagnosed with Depressive Disorder (DD),
it is hard for them to overcome the blue mood or continual feelings of sadness
and worthlessness, as well as a lack of keenness in formerly enjoyable pastimes
and activities. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015). Depressive
Disorder (DD) is a type of mental health problem that leads to the alteration
in emotions, thoughts, behavior as well as physical health. (Fedaku, Shibeshi,
Engidawork, 2017, p.1).  This disease is
very common and serious with its power to steal a person’s ability to take
interest in life and perform even the simplest daily chores. (Fedaku, Shibeshi,
Engidawork, 2017, p.1). For a long time, this disorder has not received wide
regconition and acknowledgement. Fortunately, scientists are paying attention
to tackling the chronic disease nowadays as they have made great progress in
finding treatments for this illness. This research paper is aimed at providing
more knowledge to people about DD, including its symptoms, causes, effects and
treatments for DD patients.

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of findings

are the signs of Depressive Disorder

is a mood disorder which results in dreadful symptoms that may have a strong
influence on the way you feel, behave, think and perform everyday’s tasks,
namely sleeping, working and eating (National Institute of Mental Health,
2016). Depression often begins at the outset of adulthood, with a high
frequency of reoccurences (Cesar, J., Chavoushi, F., 2013, p.7). People who are
undergoing those signs and symptoms for about fortnight may suffer from
depression. First of all, they are likely to experience the seveve feeling of sadness
or grief (Bhowmik et al. 2012). Usually, sadness is something we overcome
easily with the passage of time; however, Depressive Disorder patients will
suffer from persistent sadness, anxiousness and “empty mood” (National
Institute of Mental Health, 2016).

one of the most dominant symptoms of DD is the loss of keenness and interest in
pastimes and recreational activities (National Institute of Mental Health,
2015). It seems like people with Depressive Disorder have no pressure or
happiness in their lives, nothing can cheer them up even the things they once
had feelings for in the past (Berry J., 2016).

DD patients usually have negative thinking about themselves, their current
circumstances and their prospects in the future (The Irish Association of
Suiciology, 2016). They often feel like they have no value or they will not be
successful at anything, they are even unable to see the positive characteristics
in themselves (Berry J., 2016).

but not least, people with DD have trouble concentrating (National Institute of
Mental Health, 2015).  It is only a faint
possibility that DD patients can focus or concentrate well on any type of
decision-making tasks or even daily activities such as reading, listening and
watching (Berry J., 2016).

everyone experiences the same symptoms. Those signs above are only the most
common ones when people suffer from Depressive Disorder (National Istitute of
Health, 2015). Along with those aforementioned signs and symptoms, many others
may occur to people coming down with this illness, for instance, fatigue, exhaustion,
or even the constant thought of suicide (National Institute of Health, 2016).

are the causes of Depressive Disorder

are various causes that lead to depression. Several people with Depressive
Disorder, notably Bipolar Depression and Major Depressive Disorder, seem to
have a biological susceptibility that can be inherited in families.  (Bhowmik et al. 2012). Family history of
depression is one of the causes of Depressive Disorder. Perris et al. (1982)
put forward a theory that patients who have a family history record clear of
depression would less likely to be affected genetically (Monroe, Slavich,
Gotlib, 2013). However, there is still no solid evidence on whether people
inherited a vulnerability to these diseases or it is the environment and
personal history are the culprits (Bhowmik et al. 2012). Further research is

major life events can also result in depression. Stressful life events such as the
death of loved ones, divorce, job los, especially childhood emotional abuse,
have been persistently connected with a rise in depression symptoms (Mazure,
1998, as cited in Shapero et al. 2014). Individuals who have a history of
emotional abuse may face greater risk of depression when they encounter
stressful life events. In fact, emotional abuse has been correlated with
negative feelings of humilation, self-pity, anger, self-worthlessness; thus,
those who suffer from early emotional abuse have negative conception about
themselves in adulthood (Shapero et al. 2014).

there is a relation between depression and personality traits. According to
several studies, neuroticism (the usual feeling of worry and nervous) is
perhaps in the biggest conjunction with depression (Junni, 2017). For example,
in the case of older Korean immigrants, they had to go through hardships due to
political and economical difficulties in South Korea back then, and they
nurtured American dream with the hope of achieving better lives. However, the
attempts to adjust to the language and cultural differences have put them in
stressful situations, leading to neuroticism and ultimately depression as they
often feel isolated, hopeless and stress (Bum et al. 2016).


does Depressive Disorder influence people

influences people in many distinctive ways. DD patients may experience physical
impacts such as weight loss or overweight, sleep deprivation, aches, severe
pains and so on. However, depression can also lead to sophisticated cognitive
alterations (Harvard Medical School, 2017). The ability to think, make
decisions and memorize things is likely to be impaired. Your cognitive
adjustability and executive functioning can also be lowered (Cartreine, 2016).

addition, suicide may be the common association with mental illness, specifically
with Depressive Disorder (Diego De Leo & Lay San Too, 2014).  Depression is one of the significant causes
leading to suicide. Over the lifetime, people with untreated depression are
more vulnerable to the risk of suicide, at round 20% (Gotlib and Hammen, 2002,
as cited in Romero, A.J et al. 2014). Approximate ly 2/3 of people who end
their lives are considered to be depressed at the moment of their deaths
(American Assiociation of Suicidology, 2012, as cited in Romero, A.J et al.
2014). A large number of depressive episodes have shown a correlation with the
number of suicide efforts. Furthermore, suicide attempts appear in the
beginning of depression course, following with a high possibility of
reattempting right after the first effort (Crona, L., Mossberg, A., Bradvik,
L., 2013).

are the treatments for Depressive Disorder

is a treatable disorder with reliable diagnostic methods (Marcus et al, 2012). The
treatments can bring a good opportunity for DD people to overcome the illness
gradually. The sooner treatment starts, the more efficient it becomes (National
Institute of Health, 2015).

one of the most common treatments is talking to the doctor or psychological
advisors. According to the National Institute of Health (2015), how effectively
you and your doctor communicate with each other is one of the most significant
parts of receiving better health care. Heaversedge (2014) claimed that by
talking to your advisor, you can ask any questions related to your feelings,
thoughts and behavior, which may help you to gain more knowledge about what you
are experiencing and what support is there to help you through this. The author
also remarked that doctor will give you useful advice on what you can do to
change your habits and lifestyle in order to make an improvement in your mental

using antidepressant medications is another method for treating depression. Antidepressant
medications can be very useful, especially for people with modest-severe
depression (Marcus et al. 2012). They may assist your brain by utilising
certain chemical substances that can control mood and stress. There are various
kinds of antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA),…(National Institute of Mental
Health,2015). Although antidepressants may have side effects, they tend to fade
away over time. Reporting any side effects that you are suffering from to your
doctor and advisor, or at least you have to remember to consult with your
health care supplier before stop talking antidepressants (National Institute of
Mental Health, 2016).

but not least, you can get through depression yourself. In other words,
self-help is of great importance to aid people with depression (Marcus et al.
2012). DD patients can try to be dynamic by doing exercises regularly,
according to Cleare et al. 2015, physical activities and exercises are
considered as possible treatments for Depressive Disorder (Schuch et al. 2016).
For example, people who do aerobic exercises 3 times a week may see a great
decline in depressive symptoms and signs (Blumentah et al., 2012, p.7), or try
to engage in several activities they once felt pleasurable. Besides, spending
time with someone you love and confide in can be a good way to treat
depression, do not separate yourself and let your loved-ones help you. Always
bear in mind that you are not alone (National Institute of Mental Health,