I to the work as well as to the


I am an
assistant tour operator manager; I have selected United Kingdom as a country of
choice for this homework.


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Travel and
tourism is quickly increasing industry in today’s cultured market. People in
today’s world are very smart and enthusiastic to the work as well as to the
adventures. Tourism is the part of luxurious services provided by different
organization all over the world. Tourism is the big segment of market various
industries and organization is keep providing is best services in diversified
manner in order to catch high amount of business out of the market. The Unit 1
Historical Developments in Travel and Tourism Assignment has been
identified through the explanation of the historical development in the travel
and tourism sector and the structure of this industry. Tourism in the short
could be described as a travel for pleasure and includes many services like
accommodation, travel services food safety management, hotel room’s
occupation, amusement arrangement and further more. Thomas cook was the first
person who started his business in this field and made historical changes.



The industry of
travel and tourism has rapidly grown with the change of behaviors of human and
their expectations. There was a period structured with the information roughly from 1945 when development in the
tourism business was seen. People get a chance to invest their energy to the
better places from those others where they have been as of now. The adjustment
in the human behavior and their expectation from this industry has made
workable for tourism to keep stage with other industry.

Since in the
starting point of tourism growth, it only contains transportation and
travelling of goods. In today’s time, tourism also contains not just travelling
but also those aspects which are subsidiary to the client’s comfort. From 1960 onwards, many factors are
coming to be noticed such as clients interest that are inclined in the long
trips, free time availabilities as increment, 
people’s growth in the per capital income of the individual in U.K., and
improving of your packages offered by many organizations for the time being in

Presently a
day’s development of tourism industry is very influenced by the quantity of industries
built up in such segments. New comers in this field are putting great measure
of packages which are clients arranged with a specific end goal to bring more
business out of the market. There are so many strategies are followed by number
of player in tourism market.  Tourism
business now incorporates just voyaging administrations as well as it oversees
everything for the customers and changes are continuing running according to
the request of the clients. Structure in travel has been ordered with the
broadening of this tourism business, a considerable lot of the areas named
travel administrations, visit operations, lodging ventures, plan of
identification visa, confreres and occasions directing, investigating in
materials and other characterized stocks and so on it is to state that with the
enhanced business tourism has been separated into numerous parts.

In the future,
the tourism business is likely to make important help to global economic
development in the twenty first century. The cultural trade and understanding that
is brought about through tourism is causing a more peaceful and
internationalized universal society. Besides contributing to the expansion and
renovation of local economies and communities, tourism development is playing
an important role in both enhancing education and improving the position of the
tourism business aimed at nurturing the next generation of those ready to take
on the tourism business.


The structure of
the travel and tourism industry in UK consists of six components of sectors
which are:

1.      Tourist
Attraction – are either natural in themselves or are man-made. It is easy to
think of natural attractions e.g Lake District or Blackpool Beach that has some
6million visitors each year. Man-made attractions are constructed for tourists.
Alton Towers is a very famous theme park full of activities for the family
originating as a stately home. Other very famous attractions are the London
Eye, Tower of London, Eden Project Legoland Windsor. To arrive at these tourist
destinations, transport is required.

Transportation – forms at least
25% of a tourist’s outlay for a trip. With many ways of getting around it forms
a major role in the tourism industry. In order to get to their destination it
usually involves at least two forms of transport. The public in the UK expect a
high standard of service involving all forms of travel information. Air travel
may consist of scheduled flights flying to strict timetables. Especially
important for business people. And there are charter flights with planes hired
for certain journeys at no set time. Some large tour operators own their own
charter airlines. More than 75% of all package holidays use air travel.  Accommodation is naturally very important to
the travel and tourism industry. Consisting of hotels, B&B’s with overall
standards significantly improved. Travel inns, campsites, caravans and
self-catering villas all contribute to the industry. Over recent years
self-catering where you supply your own food and meals has grown in popularity.
Half-board offers you breakfast and tea with full-board supplying everything.

3.      Tour Operators –
produce holidays in the form of a package. A contract is negotiated with
accommodation and transport providers. Buying in bulk reduces overhead costs
and the holiday is presented as a brochure to the travel agents. And then sold;
either directly or via the agent. There are four types of tour operators. Mass
Market; examples are Thomas Cook, Thomson, First Choice. Holidays offered would
be an all-inclusive city break, the Lakes and Mountains. Specialist Holidays
for the special interests of the holidaymaker.18-30 Club; Seniors(Young at
Heart).Domestic Holidays such as Butlins ; Health Spas. Holidays for overseas
tourists visiting the country. Usually providing guides for the history and culture
of the UK. Catering mainly for the Americans and Japanese.

4.      Travel
Agents – they do their job of selling the brochures. This is the link between
tour operators and the public. They usually cater for specialist holidays.
There are multiple travel agents with agencies all around the UK. The most
famous are Going places, Thomson and Lunn Poly.

5.      Tourism
Development – Tourist boards offer information concerning the region involved
to prospective visitors. Clients can pop into a tourist information centre to
obtain literature and anything else concerning the area. The tourist
information board is concerned with promotion in any form. For advice and
information and to undertake research. Blue Badge Guides have very intensive
and specific training to provide tours of their respective regions for



Political changes can make
a huge effect on the tourism sector of U.K.. fundamental changes in politics
can cause fear for their safety in mind of the tourists and they can avoid
visiting such countries like U.K. Political changes in home country of tourist
can also have an impact on the tourism industry of other country. The attractiveness
of a country like U.K can be increased or decreased by political changes. It
depends on the type of change that the number of tourist will increase of

Local Government: – Thomson and Titan is the best industry in the tourism sector
and the income generation by Thomson and titan is the biggest influencing
factor on the local government, this solely industry pays 14% amount of tax
collected by local government in this sector luxury tax is the very big amount
of tax imposed on the general public who are availing travel and tourism
services in the market.

There are some restrictions also
imposed by   local government so that this tourism does not affect
the local functioning of its own country. It is public disclosed fact that
around 34.4 million overseas visitors who come to U.K. spent a record
of£21.8 billion. Local government is making following
activities in order to make oversea visitors experience better. Making Economic
policies align with the positive attitude with the immigrants. Making changes
in the policies and regulation in order to minimize the negative effects of
tourism. Formulating policies at the world level so that more overseas
visitors could be attracted. Establishment of collaboration with other bodies
in order to make environment of U.K. pleasant

International bodies:
– In order to boost tourism in U.K. efforts are not only made at the local
level but as well to the international level. As it is widely accepted fact
that tourism is the only sector which fetch foreign currency in a big amount,
international agencies e.g.- Europeans union, WORLD TRADE ORGANIATION, World
tourism council, International hospitality Civil Aviation Organization,
International Air Transport Association are making policies and regulation in
the affirmative manner. Tourism is the mean which align the interest of one
county with all over the world, international bodies   are making
their effort and providing their best aid to the local government


The local and
economic policies play a very significant role in the success of the travel and
tourism industry of a particular country. There are many economic policies used
by the government which affects the tourism industry in s positive way. For
example one of them would be role of the government in destination marketing.
The economic policy may include the Government keeping a separate fund to
increase the number of visitors and the per person expenditure of the
travelers. These funding can help in granting aid to the development of the
tourist destinations. There are many other policies and the regulations which
are set by the government that will affect the tourism in the economic front.
Some of these policies include the visa and immigration policies, if the
country has set up visa office off shore or not, whether the government allow
the foreign investors to invest locally, if the government allow the people
from other countries to enter their country based on their skills, the taxes
that are levied on the travelers, the amount of infrastructure development done
by the government, training facilities available for up skilling in many areas,
better facilities for the travelers, etc. This also depends if the government
is spending on the infrastructure required for tourism like better airports,
roads, navigations, hotels, accommodation facilities etc. Better infrastructure
is a key driver of industry’s ability to attract more visitors and manages.


 Travel and tourism is the best market division
which permits and draws in such a significant number of new comers. This
organizational sector is exceptionally open and immensely impacts the
neighborhood too non-occupant on their visit. It is verifiable truth that
tourism business is as of now possessed by numerous business organization and
keeping in mind the end goal to stage with this opposition a few associations
are taking incorrectly activities, for example, addition of entertainment with
the assistance of medications, liquor, cigarettes improvement of human
trafficking administrations, therefore so as to control this issues nearby and
universal government both are taking activities in such fields.

The majority of
the nations experienced subsidence and the GDP at yearly rates for the year
2009 declined by 9.8% in UK and it brings about diminished number of tourist.
Be that as it may, by changing the UK local economic strategies government
controlled the decreasing number of tourist. One of the key monetary factor is
conversion scale of pound, this rate is very solid contrast with numerous other
outside cash so remote explorer can spend more cash. Another issue which should
be talked about is regularity, as occasions are the busiest time for this part.
A large portion of the approaches concentrate on the supportability of creating
tourism. Monetary feasibility is a basic component of this maintainability.
Governments assume a critical part in accomplishment of tourism industry in the
wake of knowing the significance of this segment. Positive changes in monetary
arrangements impact this industry. The tourism business works with various
administrative offices and bodies so they can get the maximum capacity of guest



Tourism demand
can be described with the help of establishment of client’s demand. It can be
defined in different ways but there are two definitions which can be useful.
One is that it is in a numerical term total number of people who travel or
having a wish to travel, and the relationship between individual motivation and
their ability to travel.

Tourism demand
can be divided into many parts:

1.      Effective
or Actual Demand – these are the demands which is genuinely shown with the
strong desire of the clients.

2.      No
Demand, No Supply – is the situation where neither tourism industry nor the
individual demand resides.

3.      Suppressed
demand – these are the deprived demands including those persons who are unable
to travel because of the circumstances.  Sometime suppressed demand comes
due to inadequate supply of Tourism industries

of demand of tourism:-

Income and employment: This is concerned with the
ability of clients to purchase certain services and their purchasing power
ability to avail services
Education and mobility: – Education is the process
which builds up enthusiasm, ability, and wishes to explore different
geographical area of world.
Age: tourism is mostly occupied with
the clients who are falling in the age band of 17 to 50, this factors
helps in making sample survey.
Race and gender: Tourism industry is mostly
flooded with the couples it has become trends for the couples to go for a
long distance visit to spend quality of time.

demand and supply relations can be described with the help of this example.
There are number of factors which could be seen in U.K. country.  U.K. is
flooded by the Millions of overseas visitors during each year due the number of


sector is comprised of many sectors and provide wide range of services in order
to satisfy clients demand. Now a days with the enhancement of sophistication in
the people’s behavior and inclined interest toward the amusement and fun in
order to get them self out of boredom life. It is disclosed fact that demand
from the visitors has increased worldwide. There are some of the factors
responsible which has made this possible in the tourism industry.

Geographical area of one country plays a very pivotal role. U.K. has positive
demographical area all over the world with a total area of approximately
241,930 square kilometres. There is finding different variety of nature only in
one country specifically some part is covered with the big mountains on the
other hand north part has the biggest river worldwide. This all has made a
positive factor for tourism sectors

economy: there
is wide difference between emerging economy and developing economy. U.K. is
emerging economy worldwide has wide variety of monuments river and historical
places to explore.

Technologies and with the placement of gadgets in order to provide standard
comfort has played a very important part in the enhancement of tourism sector
worldwide. Technology has erased all the gaps between countries and helps
clients to be vigilant with their rights, offers in the market, safety and
security and all other things required

Influence of foreign currency exchange:
tourism is widely affected with the stability of value of money in the
international market. It is seen that devaluation or valuation has big impact
on the perception of the client to decide which country they should opt to
explore worldwide. This could be understood with the simple example of Grease
country in the European Union. The biggest downfall in the tourism sector in
the European Union due to devaluation of Euro

 Seasonality: It is seen that U.K.
atmosphere is quite adaptive for the oversea visitors. Human being exhausted on
their own environment likes to travel for the change. With the latest data it
is seen that U.K. is flooded with big number of oversea visitor during the months
started from sept to Jan.

people behavior:
People reside in U.K. are far more inclined to provide quality of services to
the oversea visitors. Tourism sectors has assisted many people in different
ways either in the terms of employment or selling house hold goods by the
business man or in the area of export of goods.



It is true to say that economic
development of one country and its growth development rate is depended on
various businesses.  Industries Tourism is coupled with much economic
activity which has direct and indirect impact on the destination of the country.
Local government of U.K. in collaboration with the international bodies such as
WORLD TRADE ORGANIATION, World tourism council, International Civil Aviation
Organization, International Air Transport Association is making various plans
and procedure in the field of development of various sectors e.g.-better
infrastructure of roads and transport, hygiene surrounding, well equipped
markets, climate, adaptive environment, management of good accommodation by
making policies with private sectors. There are some following impacts:-

of tourism and travel on the destination

Direct and indirect income: tourism business covers wide
variety of economic activities and plays a pivotal role in the economic
growth of the destination country.  In tourism business there are
number of people is employed and their income and expense has a great
impact on the national income of the destination countries. In the host
country multiplier effects could be seen and it positively affects the
economy worldwide. Nevertheless the result of tourism industries also
shows the affirmative effects on other business sectors running in the
U.K. economy.
Best source of generation of
foreign currency: tourism business has different source of incomes and
the client in such business are oversea clients. Therefore all the income
generated in the tourism business is in foreign currency. It is widely
international fact that fund of foreign currency is most important part to
make international transaction with other country. Nevertheless reserve of
foreign currency helps in valuation of domestic money at the international
Valuation of domestic money is
comparing own currency with those of other country’s money.
Increment of environment
awareness: government of host countries understands the need of
tourism in the country. U.K. government has made various plans and
policies in order to make environment clean and sophisticated for the
betterment of tourist and their luxuries.

Conservation and preservation of monuments and historical
place: U.K.
is surrounded by the different mountains, rivers and other museum and monuments
which are the key factors attracting clients worldwide. In order to boost
tourism business U.K. government passes budget each and every year with a big
amount.  historical places like tower of London, Windsor castle, British
museum, Stonehenge and other places needs good care otherwise with the time
being in force these all will get depleted.

Cross culture exchange and increment of education: The biggest benefit of tourism in
the destination country is that it align the interest of oversea visitors with
that of local people resides in U.K. Tourism business attached with many
activities and associated with different business sectors requires utmost care.
People with their interaction share knowledge and information with each other’s
In U.K. different education benefit could be seen e.g. different language
learning, oversea relation management, etc.


Sustainable development of tourism
is required to minimize the negative impact of tourism with the increment of
positive impacts at the same time. The impact of tourism with the positive and
negative impacts can be categorized into three dimensions:

Economic: With
the increment of tourism there is seen the unmatchable results in the U.K.
Environmental: Tourism
consisted with the different activities. It has a major role in the impact
on the U.K. environment.
Social and
culture: Tourism business
somehow affects the social and culture of the destination U.K. has been
affected with the oversea visitor’s culture and their way of living. Human
being is always inclined toward the new changes. U.K. resident has fatly
adapted toward the standard and the way oversea visitor’s lives their
life. With the increment of tourism in the U.K. economy there is also seen
range of increment of the people absorbing drugs, alcohol, cigarettes.

Case study: U.K.
is an emerging country. One of the major positive points of tourism is that it
generates ample amount of income to government. This income inspired government
to put additional worthy efforts to preserve its historical areas, monuments,
wildlife and so on. But on the other side tourism has made U.K. economy
unstable and unsafe. It also affects U.K. culture and social life and renders
damages to environment. There are several ways has been opted by the U.K.
government in order to curb the negative impacts on tourism:-

in number of tourist in some areas
of eco-tourism
of strict Law for Licensed Premises 
management and supervisory system on tourism
ahead Green Tourism in U.K.