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 I am anassistant tour operator manager; I have selected United Kingdom as a country ofchoice for this homework. IntroductionTravel andtourism is quickly increasing industry in today’s cultured market.

People intoday’s world are very smart and enthusiastic to the work as well as to theadventures. Tourism is the part of luxurious services provided by differentorganization all over the world. Tourism is the big segment of market variousindustries and organization is keep providing is best services in diversifiedmanner in order to catch high amount of business out of the market. The Unit 1Historical Developments in Travel and Tourism Assignment has beenidentified through the explanation of the historical development in the traveland tourism sector and the structure of this industry. Tourism in the shortcould be described as a travel for pleasure and includes many services likeaccommodation, travel services food safety management, hotel room’soccupation, amusement arrangement and further more. Thomas cook was the firstperson who started his business in this field and made historical changes.TASK 1P1The industry oftravel and tourism has rapidly grown with the change of behaviors of human andtheir expectations.

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There was a period structured with the information roughly from 1945 when development in thetourism business was seen. People get a chance to invest their energy to thebetter places from those others where they have been as of now. The adjustmentin the human behavior and their expectation from this industry has madeworkable for tourism to keep stage with other industry. Since in thestarting point of tourism growth, it only contains transportation andtravelling of goods. In today’s time, tourism also contains not just travellingbut also those aspects which are subsidiary to the client’s comfort. From 1960 onwards, many factors arecoming to be noticed such as clients interest that are inclined in the longtrips, free time availabilities as increment, people’s growth in the per capital income of the individual in U.K., andimproving of your packages offered by many organizations for the time being inforce.

Presently aday’s development of tourism industry is very influenced by the quantity of industriesbuilt up in such segments. New comers in this field are putting great measureof packages which are clients arranged with a specific end goal to bring morebusiness out of the market. There are so many strategies are followed by numberof player in tourism market.  Tourismbusiness now incorporates just voyaging administrations as well as it overseeseverything for the customers and changes are continuing running according tothe request of the clients. Structure in travel has been ordered with thebroadening of this tourism business, a considerable lot of the areas namedtravel administrations, visit operations, lodging ventures, plan ofidentification visa, confreres and occasions directing, investigating inmaterials and other characterized stocks and so on it is to state that with theenhanced business tourism has been separated into numerous parts. In the future,the tourism business is likely to make important help to global economicdevelopment in the twenty first century.

The cultural trade and understanding thatis brought about through tourism is causing a more peaceful andinternationalized universal society. Besides contributing to the expansion andrenovation of local economies and communities, tourism development is playingan important role in both enhancing education and improving the position of thetourism business aimed at nurturing the next generation of those ready to takeon the tourism business.P1.

2The structure ofthe travel and tourism industry in UK consists of six components of sectorswhich are:1.      TouristAttraction – are either natural in themselves or are man-made. It is easy tothink of natural attractions e.g Lake District or Blackpool Beach that has some6million visitors each year. Man-made attractions are constructed for tourists.Alton Towers is a very famous theme park full of activities for the familyoriginating as a stately home. Other very famous attractions are the LondonEye, Tower of London, Eden Project Legoland Windsor.

To arrive at these touristdestinations, transport is required.2.     Transportation – forms at least25% of a tourist’s outlay for a trip. With many ways of getting around it formsa major role in the tourism industry.

In order to get to their destination itusually involves at least two forms of transport. The public in the UK expect ahigh standard of service involving all forms of travel information. Air travelmay consist of scheduled flights flying to strict timetables. Especiallyimportant for business people. And there are charter flights with planes hiredfor certain journeys at no set time. Some large tour operators own their owncharter airlines. More than 75% of all package holidays use air travel.  Accommodation is naturally very important tothe travel and tourism industry.

Consisting of hotels, B&B’s with overallstandards significantly improved. Travel inns, campsites, caravans andself-catering villas all contribute to the industry. Over recent yearsself-catering where you supply your own food and meals has grown in popularity.Half-board offers you breakfast and tea with full-board supplying everything.3.      Tour Operators -produce holidays in the form of a package.

A contract is negotiated withaccommodation and transport providers. Buying in bulk reduces overhead costsand the holiday is presented as a brochure to the travel agents. And then sold;either directly or via the agent. There are four types of tour operators. MassMarket; examples are Thomas Cook, Thomson, First Choice. Holidays offered wouldbe an all-inclusive city break, the Lakes and Mountains. Specialist Holidaysfor the special interests of the holidaymaker.

18-30 Club; Seniors(Young atHeart).Domestic Holidays such as Butlins ; Health Spas. Holidays for overseastourists visiting the country. Usually providing guides for the history and cultureof the UK. Catering mainly for the Americans and Japanese.

4.      TravelAgents – they do their job of selling the brochures. This is the link betweentour operators and the public. They usually cater for specialist holidays.There are multiple travel agents with agencies all around the UK. The mostfamous are Going places, Thomson and Lunn Poly. 5.      TourismDevelopment – Tourist boards offer information concerning the region involvedto prospective visitors.

Clients can pop into a tourist information centre toobtain literature and anything else concerning the area. The touristinformation board is concerned with promotion in any form. For advice andinformation and to undertake research. Blue Badge Guides have very intensiveand specific training to provide tours of their respective regions forvisitors. TASK 2P2.1Political changes can makea huge effect on the tourism sector of U.K..

fundamental changes in politicscan cause fear for their safety in mind of the tourists and they can avoidvisiting such countries like U.K. Political changes in home country of touristcan also have an impact on the tourism industry of other country. The attractivenessof a country like U.K can be increased or decreased by political changes. Itdepends on the type of change that the number of tourist will increase ofdecrease. Local Government: – Thomson and Titan is the best industry in the tourism sectorand the income generation by Thomson and titan is the biggest influencingfactor on the local government, this solely industry pays 14% amount of taxcollected by local government in this sector luxury tax is the very big amountof tax imposed on the general public who are availing travel and tourismservices in the market.

There are some restrictions alsoimposed by   local government so that this tourism does not affectthe local functioning of its own country. It is public disclosed fact thataround 34.4 million overseas visitors who come to U.K. spent a recordof£21.8 billion.

Local government is making followingactivities in order to make oversea visitors experience better. Making Economicpolicies align with the positive attitude with the immigrants. Making changesin the policies and regulation in order to minimize the negative effects oftourism. Formulating policies at the world level so that more overseasvisitors could be attracted.

Establishment of collaboration with other bodiesin order to make environment of U.K. pleasantInternational bodies:- In order to boost tourism in U.K. efforts are not only made at the locallevel but as well to the international level.

As it is widely accepted factthat tourism is the only sector which fetch foreign currency in a big amount,international agencies e.g.- Europeans union, WORLD TRADE ORGANIATION, Worldtourism council, International hospitality Civil Aviation Organization,International Air Transport Association are making policies and regulation inthe affirmative manner. Tourism is the mean which align the interest of onecounty with all over the world, international bodies   are makingtheir effort and providing their best aid to the local governmentP2.2The local andeconomic policies play a very significant role in the success of the travel andtourism industry of a particular country. There are many economic policies usedby the government which affects the tourism industry in s positive way. Forexample one of them would be role of the government in destination marketing.The economic policy may include the Government keeping a separate fund toincrease the number of visitors and the per person expenditure of thetravelers.

These funding can help in granting aid to the development of thetourist destinations. There are many other policies and the regulations whichare set by the government that will affect the tourism in the economic front.Some of these policies include the visa and immigration policies, if thecountry has set up visa office off shore or not, whether the government allowthe foreign investors to invest locally, if the government allow the peoplefrom other countries to enter their country based on their skills, the taxesthat are levied on the travelers, the amount of infrastructure development doneby the government, training facilities available for up skilling in many areas,better facilities for the travelers, etc. This also depends if the governmentis spending on the infrastructure required for tourism like better airports,roads, navigations, hotels, accommodation facilities etc. Better infrastructureis a key driver of industry’s ability to attract more visitors and manages.

P2.3 Travel and tourism is the best market divisionwhich permits and draws in such a significant number of new comers. Thisorganizational sector is exceptionally open and immensely impacts theneighborhood too non-occupant on their visit. It is verifiable truth thattourism business is as of now possessed by numerous business organization andkeeping in mind the end goal to stage with this opposition a few associationsare taking incorrectly activities, for example, addition of entertainment withthe assistance of medications, liquor, cigarettes improvement of humantrafficking administrations, therefore so as to control this issues nearby anduniversal government both are taking activities in such fields.The majority ofthe nations experienced subsidence and the GDP at yearly rates for the year2009 declined by 9.8% in UK and it brings about diminished number of tourist.Be that as it may, by changing the UK local economic strategies governmentcontrolled the decreasing number of tourist. One of the key monetary factor isconversion scale of pound, this rate is very solid contrast with numerous otheroutside cash so remote explorer can spend more cash.

Another issue which shouldbe talked about is regularity, as occasions are the busiest time for this part.A large portion of the approaches concentrate on the supportability of creatingtourism. Monetary feasibility is a basic component of this maintainability.Governments assume a critical part in accomplishment of tourism industry in thewake of knowing the significance of this segment.

Positive changes in monetaryarrangements impact this industry. The tourism business works with variousadministrative offices and bodies so they can get the maximum capacity of guesteconomy.TASK 3P3.1Tourism demandcan be described with the help of establishment of client’s demand. It can bedefined in different ways but there are two definitions which can be useful.One is that it is in a numerical term total number of people who travel orhaving a wish to travel, and the relationship between individual motivation andtheir ability to travel.

Tourism demandcan be divided into many parts:1.      Effectiveor Actual Demand – these are the demands which is genuinely shown with thestrong desire of the clients. 2.      NoDemand, No Supply – is the situation where neither tourism industry nor theindividual demand resides.3.      Suppresseddemand – these are the deprived demands including those persons who are unableto travel because of the circumstances.

  Sometime suppressed demand comesdue to inadequate supply of Tourism industriesDeterminatesof demand of tourism:- Income and employment: This is concerned with the ability of clients to purchase certain services and their purchasing power ability to avail services Education and mobility: – Education is the process which builds up enthusiasm, ability, and wishes to explore different geographical area of world. Age: tourism is mostly occupied with the clients who are falling in the age band of 17 to 50, this factors helps in making sample survey. Race and gender: Tourism industry is mostly flooded with the couples it has become trends for the couples to go for a long distance visit to spend quality of time.Thisdemand and supply relations can be described with the help of this example.There are number of factors which could be seen in U.K. country.

  U.K. isflooded by the Millions of overseas visitors during each year due the number offactors.P3.2Tourismsector is comprised of many sectors and provide wide range of services in orderto satisfy clients demand. Now a days with the enhancement of sophistication inthe people’s behavior and inclined interest toward the amusement and fun inorder to get them self out of boredom life. It is disclosed fact that demandfrom the visitors has increased worldwide. There are some of the factorsresponsible which has made this possible in the tourism industry.

Demographicsposition:Geographical area of one country plays a very pivotal role. U.K.

has positivedemographical area all over the world with a total area of approximately241,930 square kilometres. There is finding different variety of nature only inone country specifically some part is covered with the big mountains on theother hand north part has the biggest river worldwide. This all has made apositive factor for tourism sectorsEmergingeconomy: thereis wide difference between emerging economy and developing economy.

U.K. isemerging economy worldwide has wide variety of monuments river and historicalplaces to explore.Technologicalchanges:Technologies and with the placement of gadgets in order to provide standardcomfort has played a very important part in the enhancement of tourism sectorworldwide. Technology has erased all the gaps between countries and helpsclients to be vigilant with their rights, offers in the market, safety andsecurity and all other things requiredInfluence of foreign currency exchange:tourism is widely affected with the stability of value of money in theinternational market.

It is seen that devaluation or valuation has big impacton the perception of the client to decide which country they should opt toexplore worldwide. This could be understood with the simple example of Greasecountry in the European Union. The biggest downfall in the tourism sector inthe European Union due to devaluation of Euro Seasonality: It is seen that U.K.atmosphere is quite adaptive for the oversea visitors.

Human being exhausted ontheir own environment likes to travel for the change. With the latest data itis seen that U.K. is flooded with big number of oversea visitor during the monthsstarted from sept to Jan.Localpeople behavior:People reside in U.K. are far more inclined to provide quality of services tothe oversea visitors. Tourism sectors has assisted many people in differentways either in the terms of employment or selling house hold goods by thebusiness man or in the area of export of goods.

 TASK 4P4.1It is true to say that economicdevelopment of one country and its growth development rate is depended onvarious businesses.  Industries Tourism is coupled with much economicactivity which has direct and indirect impact on the destination of the country.Local government of U.K. in collaboration with the international bodies such asWORLD TRADE ORGANIATION, World tourism council, International Civil AviationOrganization, International Air Transport Association is making various plansand procedure in the field of development of various sectors e.

g.-betterinfrastructure of roads and transport, hygiene surrounding, well equippedmarkets, climate, adaptive environment, management of good accommodation bymaking policies with private sectors. There are some following impacts:-Impactof tourism and travel on the destination Direct and indirect income: tourism business covers wide variety of economic activities and plays a pivotal role in the economic growth of the destination country.  In tourism business there are number of people is employed and their income and expense has a great impact on the national income of the destination countries.

In the host country multiplier effects could be seen and it positively affects the economy worldwide. Nevertheless the result of tourism industries also shows the affirmative effects on other business sectors running in the U.K. economy. Best source of generation of foreign currency: tourism business has different source of incomes and the client in such business are oversea clients. Therefore all the income generated in the tourism business is in foreign currency.

It is widely international fact that fund of foreign currency is most important part to make international transaction with other country. Nevertheless reserve of foreign currency helps in valuation of domestic money at the international level. Valuation of domestic money is comparing own currency with those of other country’s money. Increment of environment awareness: government of host countries understands the need of tourism in the country.

U.K. government has made various plans and policies in order to make environment clean and sophisticated for the betterment of tourist and their luxuries.·        Conservation and preservation of monuments and historicalplace: U.K.is surrounded by the different mountains, rivers and other museum and monumentswhich are the key factors attracting clients worldwide. In order to boosttourism business U.K.

government passes budget each and every year with a bigamount.  historical places like tower of London, Windsor castle, Britishmuseum, Stonehenge and other places needs good care otherwise with the timebeing in force these all will get depleted.·        Cross culture exchange and increment of education: The biggest benefit of tourism inthe destination country is that it align the interest of oversea visitors withthat of local people resides in U.K. Tourism business attached with manyactivities and associated with different business sectors requires utmost care.People with their interaction share knowledge and information with each other’sIn U.

K. different education benefit could be seen e.g.

different languagelearning, oversea relation management, etc.P4.2Sustainable development of tourismis required to minimize the negative impact of tourism with the increment ofpositive impacts at the same time. The impact of tourism with the positive andnegative impacts can be categorized into three dimensions: Economic: With the increment of tourism there is seen the unmatchable results in the U.

K. Economy. Environmental: Tourism consisted with the different activities. It has a major role in the impact on the U.K. environment. Social and culture: Tourism business somehow affects the social and culture of the destination U.K.

has been affected with the oversea visitor’s culture and their way of living. Human being is always inclined toward the new changes. U.

K. resident has fatly adapted toward the standard and the way oversea visitor’s lives their life. With the increment of tourism in the U.K.

economy there is also seen range of increment of the people absorbing drugs, alcohol, cigarettes.Case study: U.K.is an emerging country. One of the major positive points of tourism is that itgenerates ample amount of income to government. This income inspired governmentto put additional worthy efforts to preserve its historical areas, monuments,wildlife and so on.

But on the other side tourism has made U.K. economyunstable and unsafe. It also affects U.K.

culture and social life and rendersdamages to environment. There are several ways has been opted by the U.K.government in order to curb the negative impacts on tourism:- Reduction in number of tourist in some areas Enhancement  of eco-tourism Implementation of strict Law for Licensed Premises  Proper management and supervisory system on tourism Put ahead Green Tourism in U.K.