In this section we present the theory of the
real-time vehicle tracking and accident detection system
in the IOT environment.
In the proposed system, vehicles are equipped with
RFID tags and sensors to detect accident and pollution level. The interrogator,
an antenna packed with a transceiver and decoder (The RFID reader), emits a
signal activating the RFID tag so it can read the ID stored in it to be used to
identify that specific vehicle. Multiple nodes are connected to the internet
using Raspberry pi module. The timestamp signals are send to the cloud via this
Now when the vehicle met with an accident the
vibration sensor sense the level of the accident by the rate at which the
accident occurs and the ultrasonic measures the distance using sound waves.
Carbon sensors are used for the measurement of carbon dioxide gas and by this
pollution level is detected. Using the timestamps generated by RFID nodes we
can generate a real-time distance versus time plots of the particular vehicle.
When we get the real-time distance versus time plotting we can derive many
kinematics parameters from the same for
Example, velocity here we are finding the velocity
from the distance versus time plotting and also approximating the same using
modified Euler’s algorithm to approximate the vehicles velocity in the next
interrogation point, by doing this we are monitoring the movement of the vehicle
in the high-speed expressway without using the high speed cameras and image
The entire hardware is designed around the Raspberry
pi module. The Raspberry pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that
plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse.
RFID readers are interfaced with GPIO pins of the Raspberry pi module.
The timestamps which we receive
when the car carrying the tag comes into the interrogation zone of the reader
is given to the Raspberry pi module; a part of computations takes place at the
cloud server as well for plotting the real-time graphs. Thus the detected
signals from the RFID readers, vibration sensor, ultrasonic sensor and carbon
sensor are given to the raspberry pi module. Raspberry pi module is connected
to the cloud using Raspbian software and the information from the sensors is
connected to cloud. From the cloud it will be sent to the mobile via way2sms if
any abnormalities detected.