In sustained-attention, reaction-timed task that measures the speed with

this essay I am going to write about two areas of cognition. Cognition is mental
action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought,
experience and the senses 1. The first area is attention. Attention is when notice taken of someone or something 2,
and this is separated into three key characteristics. Limited, which is when
you stop paying attention after time, selective is when you decide what to
focus on and block out there thinks. Also sustained attention, which is
focussing for a long period of time 3.  The brain areas associated with attention are the prefrontal
cortex and the parietal lobe. The prefrontal cortex is used for wilful
attention, which is when you chose to focus on something. However the parietal
lobe is used when a person has concentrate suddenly on a sudden event.


Different tests are used to test attention and
what happens to attention when you are concentrating on the activity. One
example of a test is change blindness, it is a perceptual
phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and
the observer does not notice it 4.  One has to watch attentively and an image changes and you
have to spot the differences. Another example is the psychomotor
vigilance task (PVT) ,
it is a sustained-attention, reaction-timed task that measures the speed with
which subjects respond to a visual stimulus 5. The
third test is the dot probe test, it is when one see’s a dot on the screen they
press the ‘F’ or ‘J’ key on the keyboard. The dot-probe paradigm is a test used by
cognitive psychologists to assess selective attention 6. 

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A disease that can be linked with attention is
schizophrenia, which is a chronic brain disorder that has symptoms of
delusions, trouble thinking and concentration 7.  During attention tasks, patients have shown increased brain
activity however in others they show reduced brain activity. These conflicting
findings may be due to some study designs primarily eliciting sustained
engagement of attention.8