In (U.S. Department of Education, 2004, p.22). When looking

In today’s society, a life without technology isunimaginable. Already years ago, it became evident, that the change of mediahas an impact on many different areas. The most significant progress regardingtechnol­ogy was made in industrialized countries. As the USA is one of the pio­neerswhen it comes to information and communication technology (ICT), it is not remarkable,that they were one of the first countries, which integrated technology ineducation (de Moura Castro, 2004, p. 40). To be specific, com­putershave been present in U.

S. elementary schools already in the 1950’s (Parker & Davey, 2014, p. 204), but they gainedmore and more significance in the early 1980’s, as Becker showed: Between mid-1981 and the fall of 1983, the percentage of elementaryschools with one or more microcomputers jumped from 10 percent to over 60percent. During that same period, the per­centage of secondary schools withfive or more microcomputers grew from 10 percent to well over 50 percent.(Becker, 1984, pp. 22-39, as cited in Parker & Davey, 2014, p.

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204)In recent years, boundaries existed, which kept Americanschools away from the development of tech­nology use in education. The mainissue was insufficient expertise when it comes the usage of ICT, in order toenhance the study achievement. But the U.

S. Department of Education has enactedchanges regard­ing this problem. Many schools in the U.S. have undergone budgetand resource reorganizations, so as to improve teaching methods (U.

S.Department of Education, 2004, p.22). When looking at the past, most teachersin the beginning of the 1990’s had access to only one computer. Meanwhile, themajority of U.S. schools offer more than one computer device per five pupils onthe elementary and high school level. (Kleiner & Farris, 2002, as cited inKim & Bagaka, 2005, p.

318).According to Downes (2002), most of the childrennowadays have their first contact with different tech­nologies at home, butthere is still a certain number of students which do not have this privi­legeof having computing facilities in their households. Therefore, one possibilityto encounter ICT is at school. Those technological facilities, such ascomputers, can be found for instance in com­puter laboratories or libraries.The access to computers is for the majority of lecturers in pri­mary andsecondary schools restricted. Most of the time, they cannot approach thetechnolo­gies when needed.

In learning institutes, where more resources – suchas notebooks – are available, the usage is significantly higher, in comparisonto those schools, which cannot facilitate enough desktops for every person (p.30).Regarding theuse of technology, Levin and Bruce (2001) created a “taxonomy of uses oftechnologies for learning”, which focuses on four different groups. The firstone is called “Media for inquiry”, which concen­trates on the use of technologyin general for the schematic analysis, especially for scientific and arithmeticsubjects. The second, “Media for communication”, explains, that students canlearn through collaboration with other students and teachers. For instance, teachingis a specific form of communication, and techno­logical devices are supportingthis way of learning. The third group is called “Media for construction” where”the current constructivist approaches emphasize knowledge construction; infact, the new “construction­ist” approach explicitly focuses on theconstruction of ex­ternal artifacts sicas important for learning” (Kafai & Resnick, 1996, as cited in Levin &Bruce, 2001, n.

p.). The fourth taxonomy is the “Media for expres­sion”, whichtalks about editing pictures and vid­eos with different programs, which is con­sideredas a manner of expression.Downes (2002) emphasizes that there are ordinary tasks in schools whichdo not vary a lot, such as “typing things up”. Nevertheless, there exist specialactivities, such as using digital cameras for pro­jects, cre­ating websites andediting pictures, which are used in the normal curriculum (Downes, 2002, p.31).

For teachers, Microsoft Word is one of the most used computer programs,since it highly sim­plifies the creation of worksheets (Muir-Herzig, R., 2004,p. 121). This software also shows the highest usage rate within stu­dents, asthey edit English writing tasks in this program (Muir-Herzig, 2004, p. 122; Lei& Zhao, 2007, p. 290).

Students further use Microsoft PowerPoint, in orderto create presen­tations. Other software, for example science probe, areinteresting for students, but in most cases schools do not have the budget toprovide a large variety of this kind of software which means that the usage isnot frequent (Lei & Zhao, 2007, pp. 290-291). Lei and Zhao (2007)investigated, that middle school students use computers primarily for solving ex­ercises(“homework”), information collection, mailing, private surfing, chatting andspecial software usage (Lei & Zhao, 2007,p. 290). When compar­ingelementary schools with secondary schools, it results, that teachers from thefor­mer one instruct pupils to use the computer for problem-solving, whereasthe secondary school teachers expect stu­dents to gather in­formation overinternet (U.S.

Department of Education, 1999, p. 2). The U.S.

Department of Education is convinced, that technology can leadto a massive progress when it comes to the efficiency of teaching and learning.Therefore, there are several free “educational resources”, which can be onlineaccessed, such as the CK-12 FlexBook, a digital textbook (U.S. Depart­ment ofEducation, n.d.

). It is proven by Lei and Zhao (2007) that the academicachievement of stu­dents increases when using topic relevant software, becausethey focus on a specific subject and apply different study methods, which arenot common in usual classroom environ­ments (Lei and Zhao, 2007, p. 293). Furthermore,students can increase their grades while doing projects. For instance, afterresearching a specific field, they have to present a website as a result of theconducted research.

During this process, they engage with the chosen topic andthereby internalize the new ma­terial. Further to this, elementary schoolchildren can work more independently on a topic, with indi­vidual support fromthe lecturers, when having computing technology available. (Dynarski et al.,2007, p. 19). As Anderson and Dexter (2003) explained, laptops and Wi-Fi-connectioncan be considered as powerful technologi­cal resources, which help students intheir learning process while doing projects. Teachers especially highlightedthe betterment of school children in communicating their results of the pro­ject,their gen­eral commitment in class, as well as in team works and profoundcomprehension of the topic (Anderson & Dexter, 2003, p. 10).

Nevertheless,the decision if a student is allowed to use a computer for a certain task restswith the teacher. This might lead to injustice, because students only receiveper­mission for using the computer, if they complete for instance a “classwork”fast. Another problem which students encountered was the lack of practice time,especially those ones, which have no access to computers at home. What has alsobeen noticed is, that teachers tend to give simple exercises such as typingtexts and gathering information (Downes, 2002, p. 31). How ICT influencesstudents depends also on the amount spent on the computer.

As soon as student’susage of technology contains more than 3 hours, it affects them negatively whenlooking at their grades (Lei and Zhao, 2007, p. 288). However, Lei and Zhao (2007)argue, that even though the number of hours matter when looking at the learningimprovement, it is important to consider the fact of how efficient the time inthe internet is used (Lei & Zhao, 2007, p. 289).In their nationwide study “Closing the digital divide: understandingracial, ethnic, social class, gender and geographic disparities in Internet useamong school age children in the United States”, Cleary, Pierce and Trauth(2005) point out, that although the accessibility for computing technologiesrises in the U.

S., the issue of a “digital divide” remains. Despite theexisting investigations regarding this prob­lem, there are still un­known factorswhen looking at the question why this disparity in internet access occurs amongpupils (p.

354). In the same study, the researchers found out, that severalelements, such as the residential area, the ethnic background or financialposition, can be responsible for the ine­quality in computer access amongschool children. With regard to these points, “the most critical dis­paritiesin Internet use among school age children occurred among children from Black(non-Hispanic), His­panic, and non-citizen households” (p. 370). This resultshows, that the children of those families have reduced experience of computertechnologies, because they do not have those facilities at home, mostly due tolack of financial funds. Even if enough technological devices would beavailable at school, the digital divide would still exist, because thehouseholds from one stu­dent to another differ (Kim & Bagaka, 2005, p. 327).Kim and Bagaka (2005) highlight, that the gap in the usage of tech­nologybetween stu­dents depends also on the teachers, as some of them show moreexperience and proficiency with education technology than others.

Further theysuggest, that “teacher education programs” should be implemented, in order toimprove this issue (p.327). BibliographyAnderson, R., & Dexter, S. (2003). Newsome Park Elementary: Making LearningMeaningful through Project-Based Learning Using Wireless Laptops in a K-5 Math,Science, and Technology Magnet School. Minnesota. Retrieved from http://edtechcases.

info/schools/newsome/Newsome%20Park%20Elementary.pdfBecker, H.J. (1984). Computers in schools today: Somebasic considerations. American Journal of Education, 1984 (93), 22-39.Cleary, P.

, Pierce, G., & Trauth, E. (2005,December). Closing the digital divide: understanding racial, ethnic, socialclass, gender and geographic disparities in Internet use among school agechildren in the United States. Paper presented at 30th AnnualTelecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC). Alexandria, Virginia.

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(2004). Are new technologies bettertechnologies? For whom? In D.W.Chapman, L.O.

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(2007). Technology uses andstudent achievement: A longitudinal study. Science Direct, 2007 (49), 284-296.


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