Industrialization affectedthe lives of average working Americans in many ways. New inventions intechnology for farmers and railroads cause a lack of need for workers forcingthem to move to cities to find employment. Skilled workers were replaced bymachines that could do the job faster and unskilled workers to man themachines. They were subjected to longwork days sometimes 10-16 hours, six days a week with no holidays or vacations.Women and children were forced into the work field to help with familyfinances.
The unsanitary working condition in these factories was hazardous and led to ill health andaccidents and even death on the job. They were subject to extremely hightemperatures and no medical insurance or compensation for workers who wereinjured on the job. With so many people needing jobs the employers could setthe pay rate extremely low. Unskilled workers could make 8 to 10 dollars an hour, women made on third of that andchildren one-tenth.
Because of the needto move to the city for jobs, there was alot of overcrowding. Small apartments housed ten to fifteen people. Most peoplelived in the slums where diseases spread rapidly due to overcrowding and lackof medical care. As industrialization occurred, the middleclass emerged. The middle class, skilled workers, managers, clerks,accountants, and others, had the money they needed to survive. They were ableto live comfortably and many could move from the cities into what it becomingknown as the suburbs. III. Howindustrialization affected the life of the average working American.
Womennow had to leave the home and join the workforce. Women were paid poorly andhad to work long hours in very poor conditions. While women use to work in thehome either spinning, or weaving, or sewing they were now in factories, inhorrible conditions. High temperatures and filthy environments. Some women werefortunate enough to become maids for wealthier families, or work as governessesfor rich children. The less fortunate may have been forced to work in shockingconditions during the day and then have to return home to take care ofhousehold duties. Women also faced societies demand to have children. The industrial age led to a rapid increase inbirth rates.
Some families would have more than 10 children, and the womanwould often have to work up to and straight after the day of the child’s birth toensure they would be ok financially.Childrenwere affected. For families to survive poverty they needed all member s of thefamily to work even children, they had to give up on education and work long hoursfor little pay, they made at most one-tenthof a man’s pay. Because they were so small they were able to be put into tinyspaces like mines. Because of the hazardous work conditions, children’s healthdeteriorated and many children were killed in accidents in these factories andmines.AfricanAmericans had to deal with Segregation know as Jim Crow. Segregation was abyproduct of the Industrial Revolution and urbanization. African Americans tookjobs that no one else would want such as maids, porters, and waiters.
While Northern states practiced asocietal form of segregation through the discriminatoryhousing, bank lending, and employmentpractices, Southern states practiced legal segregation through Jim Crow laws. Theselaws were extended to schools, streetcars, libraries, restaurants, parks, zoos,and even residential areas. African Americans were subject to conditions closeto slavery even after the Civil War. Black Codes were laws thatgranted certain legal rights to blacks, like the right to marry, or own property and sue in court, but it was illegalfor blacks to serve on juries, or to testify against white people, or serve in themilitary. The Black Codes required African American sharecroppers and tenantfarmers to sign annual labor contracts with white landowners. If they refusedthey could be arrested and hired out for work. Most black Americans lived indesperate rural poverty after slavery. Whilemany groups were affected by industrialization we will look at just three.
Wewill see how African Americans, Children, andwomen were affected by industrialization. II. Groupsthat were affected by industrialization.Therewere many aspects of industrialization that affectedsociety, politics, and economy between1865 and 1920. Many businesses and factories were built during the industrial revolutionin the nation’s towns and cities. Americans migrated from the countryside tocities in search of workers leaving theirhomes and jobs as farmers. During these same years, immigrants, mostly from Europe, moved to the UnitedStates—one of the largest mass migrations in human history—and while somesettled on farms, most also moved into these cities for work.
The economybecame dominated by big corporations instead of family businesses. Despite thegrowth in wealth and industry urbanization also had some negative effects. Onthe whole, working-class neighborhoods were bleak, crowded, dirty, andpolluted. Laissez-faire during the age ofindustrialization allowed American factories operated with a free hand. This allowed companies to treat workersharshly, be underpaid and work in hazardous conditions. Working long hours forvery little pay in hazardous working conditions.
I. Majoraspects of industrialization between 1865 and 1920.OutlineThe Civil War paved theway in turning the United States into the land of opportunity.
It was atraumatic experience that changed American society. In this paper, we will lookat the changes brought on by the Civil War and the Industrial Revolution.Introduction